Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

5116/05 SCIENCE PRACTICAL EXAM 18 th October 2012 (Thursday)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "5116/05 SCIENCE PRACTICAL EXAM 18 th October 2012 (Thursday)"— Presentation transcript:

1 5116/05 SCIENCE PRACTICAL EXAM 18 th October 2012 (Thursday)

2 SCIENCE (CHEMISTRY)

3 What are you expected to do?  You are usually asked to do the following: - heat a substance - add a substance to another - describe a sample

4 What must you observe?  You must be alert to observe the following: - changes in colour - production of gases - formation of precipitate

5 NOTES FOR QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

6

7 Test for Gases ObservationsConclusion

8 Test for Gases – Ammonia (NH 3 ) Observations: Effervescence observed. Gas evolved turns damp litmus paper blue. Conclusion: Ammonia gas is evolved.

9 Test for Gases – Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Observations: Effervescence observed. Gas evolved gives white ppt. with limewater. Conclusion: Carbon dioxide gas is evolved.

10 Test for Gases – Chlorine (Cl 2 ) Observations: Effervescence observed. Gas evolved turns damp litmus paper red, then white. Conclusion: Chlorine gas is evolved.

11 Test for Gases – Hydrogen (H 2 ) Observations: Effervescence observed. Gas evolved extinguishes a lighted splinter with a ‘pop’ sound. Conclusion: Hydrogen gas is evolved.

12 Test for Gases – Oxygen (O 2 ) Observations: Effervescence observed. Gas evolved relights a glowing splinter. Conclusion: Oxygen gas is evolved.

13 Test for Gases – Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Observations: Effervescence observed. Gas evolved turns aqueous acidified potassium dichromate (VI) from orange to green. Conclusion: Sulfur dioxide gas is evolved.

14 Test for Cations ObservationsConclusion

15

16 Test for Cations – Na + /K + /NH 4 + Observation: No ppt. observed. Observation: No visible reaction on warming. Conclusion: Na + / K + is present. Observation: Ammonia produced on warming. Conclusion: NH 4 + is present.

17 Test for Cations – Ca 2+ / Pb 2+ / Zn 2+ Observation: White ppt. observed. Observation: White ppt., soluble in excess, giving a colourless solution. Conclusion: Pb 2+ / Zn 2+ is present. Observation: White ppt., insoluble in excess. Conclusion: Ca 2+ is present.

18 Test for Cations – Cu 2+ / Fe 2+ / Fe 3+ Observation: Light blue ppt., insoluble in excess. Conclusion: Cu 2+ is present. Observation: Red-brown ppt., insoluble in excess. Conclusion: Fe 3+ is present. Observation: Green ppt., insoluble in excess. Conclusion: Fe 2+ is present.

19 Test for Anions Observations Conclusion

20 Test for Anions – Cl - Test: To 2 cm 3 of solution, add an equal amount of dilute nitric acid, followed by aqueous silver nitrate. Observation: White ppt. observed. Conclusion: Cl - is present.

21 Test for Anions – SO 4 2- Test: To 2 cm 3 of solution, add an equal amount of dilute nitric acid (dilute hydrochloric acid), followed by aqueous barium nitrate (aqueous barium chloride). Observation: White ppt. observed. Conclusion: SO 4 2- is present.

22 Oxidising agents undergo reduction. Reducing agents undergo oxidation. OXIDISING AND REDUCING AGENTS

23 Common Oxidising Agents OXIDISING AGENTBEFOREAFTER Aqueous acidified potassium manganate (VII) H + / KMnO 4 (aq) Purple (MnO 4 - ) Colourless (Mn 2+ ) Aqueous acidified potassium dichromate (VI) H + / K 2 Cr 2 O 7 (aq) Orange (Cr 2 O 7 2- ) Green (Cr 3+ ) Aqueous iron (III) compoundsYellow (Fe 3+ ) Pale green (Fe 2+ ) Aqueous iodineDark brown (I 2 ) Colourless (I - ) Oxidising agents undergo reduction.

24 Common Reducing Agents REDUCING AGENTBEFOREAFTER Aqueous iron (II) compoundsPale green (Fe 2+ ) Yellow (Fe 3+ ) Aqueous potassium iodideColourless (I - ) Dark brown (I 2 ) Reducing agents undergo oxidation.

25 A more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal from its solution. DISPLACEMENT REACTIONS

26 Common Metals MetalColour of MetalColour of Metallic Salt Solution MagnesiumShinyColourless (Mg 2+ ) AluminiumShinyColourless (Al 3+ ) ZincDull GreyColourless (Zn 2+ ) IronDark greyPale green (Fe 2+ ) / Yellow (Fe 3+ ) LeadDull greyColourless (Pb 2+ ) CopperReddish-brownBlue (Cu 2+ ) SilverShinyColourless (Ag + )

27 Common Metals magnesium ribbon aluminium foil zinc powder lead iron filings copper turnings

28 Displacement Reactions Magnesium Mg (s) + CuSO 4 (aq) → MgSO 4 + Cu (s) Effervescence observed. The magnesium ribbon dissolves rapidly into the solution. The blue solution turns colourless slowly. A reddish brown solid is deposited at the bottom of the test-tube.

29 Displacement Reactions Magnesium Mg (s) + FeCl 2 (aq) → MgCl 2 + Fe (s) Effervescence observed. The magnesium ribbon dissolves rapidly into the solution. The pale green solution turns colourless slowly. A grey solid is deposited at the bottom of the test- tube.

30 Displacement Reactions Zinc Zn (s) + CuSO 4 (aq) → ZnSO 4 + Cu (s) Effervescence observed. The zinc powder dissolves slowly into the solution. The blue solution turns colourless. A reddish brown solid is deposited at the bottom of the test-tube.

31 Displacement Reactions Zinc 3 Zn (s) + 2 FeCl 3 (aq) → 3 ZnCl Fe (s) Effervescence observed. The zinc powder dissolves slowly into the solution. The yellow solution turns colourless. A grey solid is deposited at the bottom of the test- tube.

32 Displacement Reactions Copper Cu (s) + 2 AgNO 3 (aq) → Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 Ag (s) The colourless solution turns blue. A silvery, shiny solid is deposited at the bottom of the test-tube.

33 RECORDING OBSERVATIONS

34 Recording Observations  The examination format usually comes in the form of a table, with answer spaces opposite the instructions for each test or experiment.  Your observations must be recorded directly opposite these instructions, so that it is clear which test your observations apply to.  This is important when the test instructions consist of two or more separate steps.

35 Recording Observations  Observations are changes which are seen in tests.  These changes are:  Colour changes in solids or liquids,  Precipitates formed,  Effervescence (bubbles) of gases evolved, and if they are coloured or have strong smells,  Flames produced.

36 Recording Observations  A gas is being produced if you can see bubbles in a liquid or if you can observe its colour or detect its strong smell.  When a gas is observed, it must be identified with a test. You must then record the name of the gas, its colour and smell (if any) and the test which identifies it.  When testing for a gas, make sure the gas is still being produced. There is no point in testing for a gas after it has all disappeared.  Gases produced by reagents alone are not observations.

37 Recording Observations  When carrying out an experiment, always leave the test-tube to stand for one or two minutes as some changes take a slightly longer time.  There is an observation for every test. If you do not observe any change, then you should record ‘no visible change’. Do not leave a blank space in your record.

38 RECORDING CONCLUSIONS

39 Recording Conclusions  You are usually expected to draw conclusions from the results of your tests.  These conclusions consist of a number of deductions from your observations concerning:  The identity of the substances in the unknown, such as cations and anions present,  The nature of the unknown, such as whether or not it is an oxidising agent or a reducing agent,  The elements present in the unknown.

40 Recording Conclusions  It is important to realise that it may not be possible to completely identify the unknown from the result of your tests, because:  either you do not have enough facts to work it out,  or the unknown is a substance not in the O-level syllabus.

41 GENERAL COMMENTS/FEEDBACK

42 General Comments from Examiners  Candidates should be encouraged to observe carefully and record all changes, not just the first ones they see.  Generally, a question which instructs candidates to continue until no further change is seen indicates that more than one observation can be made.  Candidates should be reminded to use the correct terminology; for example, the words ‘precipitate’, ‘solution’ and ‘mixture’ have specific meanings in chemistry.

43 General Comments from Examiners  When conducting a flame test, candidates should focus on the colour of the flame, and record accordingly.  Some candidates wrongly reported that the flame burnt, or relit, or that the solid turned black.

44 General Comments from Examiners  Ambiguous reporting You must always report on the colour and state (whether it is a precipitate or a solution) when describing a result). Incorrect (  )Correct ( ) It turns blue.A blue ppt. is formed. The xxx solution turns blue. A solid is formed.A white ppt. is formed. The filtrate is clear.The filtrate is a colourless solution. The solution is clear.The white solid dissolves completely to give a colourless solution.

45 General Comments from Examiners  Incomplete reporting You must always report completely to let the examiners know how you arrive at a conclusion. Incorrect (  )Correct ( ) Carbon dioxide gas is evolved. Effervescence observed. Gas evolved gives a white ppt. with limewater. The precipitate dissolves.Light-blue ppt., soluble in excess, giving a dark blue solution.

46 General Comments from Examiners  Incorrect reporting The common errors involve the use of the term white / clear to mean colourless. Incorrect (  )Correct ( ) The solution becomes white.The white solid dissolves completely to give a colourless solution.

47 Be calm and do your BEST !!!


Download ppt "5116/05 SCIENCE PRACTICAL EXAM 18 th October 2012 (Thursday)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google