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Excretion of Nitrogenous Waste WALT To recap types of nitrogenous waste To identify the ultrastructure of the kidney To explain ultrafiltration.

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Presentation on theme: "Excretion of Nitrogenous Waste WALT To recap types of nitrogenous waste To identify the ultrastructure of the kidney To explain ultrafiltration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Excretion of Nitrogenous Waste WALT To recap types of nitrogenous waste To identify the ultrastructure of the kidney To explain ultrafiltration

2 Excretion is the process by which waste products of the organism’s metabolism are eliminated from the body. Secretion is the production by the cells substances useful to the body. Egestion is the removal of undigested food & other substances which have never been involved in metabolism. Some definitions..

3 There are three main waste products of nitrogenous metabolism: Ammonia Urea Uric acid Excretory Products

4 Ammonia Ammonia is derived from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids in the body. It is very toxic and is never allowed to accumulate within the body tissues or fluids. It is extremely soluble and diffuses readily across cell membranes. It is the main excretory product of marine invertebrates & all fresh water animals.

5 The synthesis of uric acid spends more energy than urea, but it is advantageous to many animals. It is insoluble, non-toxic and requires very little water for its removal from the body -- a suitable product for animals in desert places. Uric Acid

6 Carbon dioxide + ammonia  urea + water CO 2 + 2NH 3  (NH 2 ) 2 CO + H 2 O Urea is produced by the ornithine cycle with expenditure of some energy. It is much less toxic than ammonia, less water is needed for its elimination because the tissues can tolerate higher concentrations of it. Urea

7 The Mammalian Kidney The kidney has two main functions: It removes metabolic waste from the body through the process of excretion as urine It regulates the water and ion content of the blood. This keeps the water potential of the blood constant.

8 Position of the urinary organs

9 Kidney Structure

10 Kidney Cross Section cortex medulla pelvis

11 Collecting duct Renal medulla Renal cortex Nephron tubule

12 The functions of the kidney Ultrafiltration – filtering blood unbder pressure Selective reabsorption – reabsorbing the useful substances Production of an ion gradient in the medulla – to allow production of hypertonic urine if necessary Adjustment of the water and ion content of the blood – to maintain homestasis

13 Each kidney is made of millions of tiny tubules called nephrons, each of which consists of a Bowman's capsule and a uriniferous tubule joining to a collecting duct. A branch of the renal artery enters the Bowman's capsule as the glomerulus, then splits up into capillaries which spread out and wrap around the tubule. Finally, these capillaries join up to the renal vein. The Structure of the kidney

14 Fig (TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Glomerulus Renal cortex Renal medulla Bowman's capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Descending limb of loop of Henle Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Ascending limb of loop of Henle Collecting duct To ureter Vasa recta Peritubular capillaries

15 Ultrafiltration Blood reaching the glomerulus is under high pressure because: The afferent arteriole is wider than the efferent arteriole The heart has a high pumping force

16 Ultrafiltration This pressure results in small molecules from the blood being squeezed out through the capillary walls and into the capsular space of the Bowmans Capsule

17 Ultrafiltration

18 Fig (TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Renal tubule Excretion Filtration Reabsorption to blood Secretion from blood Glomerulus Bowman's capsule

19 There are inner podocytes and outer squamous epithelium The glomerular filtrate contains water, amino acids, glucose, minerals and urea; blood cells & proteins are too large to pass through Ultrafiltration is a passive process and selection of substances passing from the blood into the glomerular filtrate is made entirely according to the relative molecular mass Cells of Bowman's capsule

20 The walls of the glomerulus have 3 layers: The inner layer of flat endothelial cells that make the capillary walls. The basement membrane of the capillaries The podocytes of the Bowmans capsule:

21 Podocyte

22

23 Excretion of Nitrogenous Waste Have we met our objectives? To recap types of nitrogenous waste To identify the ultrastructure of the kidney To explain ultrafiltration


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