Presentation on theme: "Ruminants..... Feed In VFA Microbial Protein Vitamins The nutrients presented to the cow or steer by the rumen are very different than those entering."— Presentation transcript:
Feed In VFA Microbial Protein Vitamins The nutrients presented to the cow or steer by the rumen are very different than those entering the rumen as feed.
Digestion Fermentation All CHO must pass through Pyruvate to become VFA
Some Basics Nonstructural polysaccharides Structural polysaccharides VFA, H + PyruvateLactate Rumen pH must be defended in the face of organic acids and H + production to prevent acidosis.
Rumen papillae epithelium performs at least 3 major functions: protection metabolism absorption VFA are absorbed passively; thus, the concentration gradient from lumen to blood supply must be maintained. Metabolism of some VFA within the cells of the papillae help ensure a gradient.
II. Rumen Development A. Newborns are not functional ruminants 1.Lack sucrase 2.Limited amylase 3.Lactase: galactose, glucose 4.Ability to digest non-starch polysaccharides precedes that for starch Some Basics
B. Rumen Development Begins Early 1.Depends on: a.fibrous diet b.inoculation c.VFA stimulation Some Basics
C. Inoculation occurs by: 1.Feed 2.Inter-animal contact (saliva) 3.Manure, soil *occurs with isolation, but much slower and less completely Some Basics
Ruminants.... N metabolism vs. Protein metabolism... The quality and quantity of protein (amino acids) fed to the rumen is very different from that delivered to the small intestine because microbes within the rumen fix nitrogen and modify in- coming proteins.
Incorporation of recycled nitrogen in the form of ammonia allows the daily flow of nitrogen into the duodenum to EXCEED nitrogen intake when the dietary protein content is held low.
Ruminants.... Synthesis of microbial protein ammonia (NH 3 ) is a key molecule R
Ruminants.... Rumen bacteria use NH 3 -nitrogen as a source of amino nitrogen for synthesizing amino acids. ~40% of the bacterial protein nitrogen passes through the rumen ammonia pool.
Diffusion Saliva NPN (urea) Degradable protein Recycled urea Dietary NH 3 SourcesEndogenous Sources All of these contribute to the pool of ammonia in the rumen Ammonia enters the rumen from multiple sources
The “urea cycle” Carbomyl Phosphate + Aspartate + 3 ATP + 2 H2O Urea + Fumarate + 2 ADP + 2 Pi + AMP + PPi Ammonia enters the rumen from multiple sources...
CO(NH 2 ) 2 C O NH 2 Urease produced by SOME rumen microbes adhered to the rumen epithelium cleaves amino nitrogen from blood urea and releases it as free ammonia. The ammonia in the acid conditions of the rumen is ionized (NH 4 + ) and trapped. Urease Ammonia enters the rumen from multiple sources...
NH 3 As microbial protein Absorption by rumen wall Flushing to omasum Trapped ammonia-N exits the rumen as protein, or ammonia for recyling < >> Ammonia enters the rumen from multiple sources...
Ruminants.... Ruminants do not require amino acids in their diet Instead they require N This N can come from amino acids or non-protein N (NPN) sources such as urea
Rumen undegradable proteins... One of the challenges in formulating ruminant diets is that the AA ratio fed does not reflect the AA profile available to the animal Therefore, there is interest in “Rumen Undegradable Proteins” (RUPs, RBPs)
Rumen undegradable proteins... RUPs cannot be degraded by the microbes in the Rumen Therefore, the amino content of the RUP represents what is being presented to the small intestine of the animal