Presentation on theme: "Enhancing China’s Sustainable Growth and Prosperity: a Pathway to Cleaner Coal Hengwei LIU, PhD Energy, Climate, and Innovation (ECI) Program The Fletcher."— Presentation transcript:
Enhancing China’s Sustainable Growth and Prosperity: a Pathway to Cleaner Coal Hengwei LIU, PhD Energy, Climate, and Innovation (ECI) Program The Fletcher School, Tufts University Presentation to the China Environment Forum @ Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C., 12 January 2011
Agenda Explore major CCS opportunities Identify key technologies enabling CCS development Propose a US-China partnership on CCS HengweiLiu, Kelly Sims Gallagher. Catalyzing strategic transformation to a low-carbon economy: A CCS roadmap for China. Energy Policy38(2010)59–74.
CO 2 emissions by sector in China 2005 2030 Data source: WEO2007 Power generation and industry account for more than 70% of China’s total energy-related CO2 emissions Power Industry Iron & steel (Cement) (Ammonia & Methanol)
Prime candidates for CCS in China Ammonia & Methanol Iron and steel Cement Power Today: more than 80% coal electricity Data source: NBS
CCS and its enabling technologies: a twin-pronged approach to promote the CCS deployment Manufacturing process & energy conversion process CCS + CCS enabling technologies
Summary of CCS enabling technologies Leading technology IGCC/Co-production
Co-production: an important approach to promote IGCC development in China ASU Air O2O2 N2N2 Combined Cycle Chemical plant Gasifier Coal Syngas (CO+H 2 ) Electricity methanol CO 2 Separator H2H2 Power generation OtherFuel cell Seque- stration EOR/ECBM Ocean storage Others Shift reactor Steam CO 2 +H 2 IGCC
(2) CCS enabling technologies: Iron & Steel Leading technology IGCC/Co-production
Iron making: development trend Blast furnace iron-making Non-blast furnace iron-making Dominant technology Severe pollution Direct reductionSmelting reduction
Breakthrough CCS enabling technologies are needed to achieve large-scale CO2 reduction Steel making Capture from the main emitter (blast furnace) brings only about 30% reduction in CO2 emissions Bao Steel Data source: ZHANG Shourong
Polygeneration based on Oxygen Blast Furnace The off gas with medium heating value from OBF is used as an IGCC/co-production fuel gas Picture from internet
Polygeneration Based on Direct Reduction By coupling IGCC/co-production with a DR process, it shares one gasifier to produce syngas Picture from internet
Polygeneration based on Smelting Reduction The off gas from SR is used as an IGCC/co-production fuel gas Picture from internet
Ammonia & Methanol coal Gasification Ammonia Methanol Syngas Ammonia industry is the largest consumer of gasification technology in China. Coal-based synthetic ammonia accounts for about 75% of total output –Consume 50 Mt coal per year coal-based methanol accounted for about 80% of total output. –consume about 12 Mt coal
Cleaner coal & water Water consumption (Kg/MWh) Subcritical: 300MW; USC: 1000MW; IGCC: Gasifier: Shell Estimated by Hengwei Liu
How to use coal in a carbon-constrained future? Energy & water efficient approaches to a cleaner coal: advanced combustion & gasification
Who owns our low-carbon future? Source: Bernice Lee, Ilian Iliev and Felix Preston. Chatham House Report 2009 Geographical location of the parent companies of patent owners International cooperation is critical for CCS diffusion
Accelerating technology diffusion and drive down the cost of CCS through a U.S.-China partnership US has a more advanced S&T innovative system and has a well established regime for bringing technologies to market. China has vibrant market, and the ability to commercialize new technologies more quickly and cheaply. Data source: IEA&NBS
Conclusions A twin-pronged strategy for CCS and its enabling technologies should be developed. Coal gasification & advanced combustion are energy & water efficient ways to a cleaner coal, and they should be given top priority to enable CCS development in China. A U.S.-China partnership has the potential to accelerate technology diffusion and drive down the cost of CCS.
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