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NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY The recent development in Denmark in relation to ammonia regulation Steen Gyldenkærne Dept.

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Presentation on theme: "NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY The recent development in Denmark in relation to ammonia regulation Steen Gyldenkærne Dept."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY The recent development in Denmark in relation to ammonia regulation Steen Gyldenkærne Dept. of Policy Analysis, Nat. Env. Res. Inst Aarhus University TFRN, Rome May 2011

2 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Outline ›Background ›Previous regulations ›What have we achieved so far ›Nex ›Nitrogen consumption ›Leaching ›N in watersheds ›Nex data ›Comparison with other countries ›Future regulations

3 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne You need a good case!

4 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Action plans and regulations ›1987 Action Plan on the aquatic environment (I) ›Partly voluntary agreement on reduced N input ›Higher utilization of N in animal manure ›Agreement was 50% reduction in Nitrogen leaching from the root zone ›1998 Action Plan on the aquatic environment (II) ›6% of the agricultural area with catch crops ›10% reduced nitrogen norms compared to normal ›5% increased utilization rate of N i animal manure ›2000 Ammonia action plan ›Ban on broad casting ›Increased storage capacity, approx. 10 months ›Increased coverage of manure stores ›Time slot for incorporation of manure, 6 hours ›No manure application on “not harvested crops”, i.e. ban on autumn application ›2004 Action Plan on the aquatic environment (III) ›Mandatory Nitrogen accounting (farms >10 AU) ›Increased utilization rate of N in animal manure, >75% › More information later

5 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Current regulation ›Approval of all farms every 8 years and when changed ›Limits ›15 AU ›75 AU ›Includes ammonia deposition estimates to natural habitats ›Costly › Up to € ›Time consuming ›Up to 2-3 years ›Turnover rates of animals ›90 % of the pigs are moving to other facilities within 10 years ›90% of the diary cows are moving within 18 years ›New approval

6 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: I Source: Winther, F. and P. Olesen, NOVANA data by Jørgen Windolf, NERI Nitrogen input Nitrogen output

7 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: II Nitrogen surplusNitrogen utilization rate

8 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Ammonia, overall reduction Total:- 34% Dairy cattle:- 49% Pigs:- 38% Ammonia, overall reduction Stable:- 3% Storage:- 70% Application:- 48% Grazing:- 36% Ammonia, overall reduction IEF Dairy cattle:- 19% Pigs:- 54% What have been achieved so far: III

9 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: IV Source: Ellermann et al. NERI, 2011 Nitrogen deposition to land Nitrogen deposition to water

10 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: V Nitrogen input Mineral fertilser:- 50% Animal manure:- 10% Leaching From Root zone:- 50% Diffusive sources into water:- 41%

11 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: VI (a) ›Denmark has some of the best educated farmers ›High performance of the farmers ›Efficient controlling systems ›Good data quality on input › The Normative system ›Annual updated Nex for all animal types based on ›18-20 % of all dairy cattle ›25-30 % of all pigs ›75-80 % of all poultry › % of all fur farms ›Reliable data for Nex

12 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: VI (b) Fatteners FU/kg growth2,9 g protein/FU162,5158,3157,6151,0 Nex, kg/yr/produced pig4,534,553,283,153,192,94 Piglets FU/kg growth2,02,12,0 g protein/FU175,0164,3164,8161,0 Nex, kg/yr/produced pig0,730,68 0,640,630,51 SowsFU g protein/FU150,0149,8142,8138,0 Nex, kg/yr28,726,325,726,627,226,0 Dairy cows Milk yield, l/yr FE g protein/FU175,6175,0173,0172,0 Nex, kg/yr133,0121,4128,0127,3134,5140,9 Feed consumption and Nex

13 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: VII FU/kg feed % CP, current danish values, % in feed TFRN Medium TFRN High Minimum economial CP content based on amino acid optimization Fatteners 1,0515, ,3 Piglets 1,1318, ,7 Sows1,0414, , Source: Own calculation based on data from the Danish Plant Directorate and Crude Protein (CP) content in pig feed

14 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne What have been achieved so far: VIII Simple cost calculation Approximately cost, : 500 – 600 Million € Abated ammonia, :387,538ton NH3-N Reduced leaching to water:325,778 ton N Cost per kg reduced NH3-N:1.3 – 1.5 €/kg NH3-N Cost per kg reduced leached N:1.5 – 1.8 €/kg N leached

15 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Comparison with other countries 2008DenmarkGermanyPolandThe Netherlands % Ammonia loss per kg excreted Nitrogen Cattle Pigs Poultry Source: Own calculation based on reported data to EMEP/CORINAR and UNFCCC Emission kg NH3-NDairy cowsFatteners/place Guide book Tier 1, approx. incl. manure application28.00 (? kg Nex)5.44 Denmark average 2009 incl. manure application21.68 (140 kg Nex)1.82

16 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne The Future ›Approval of all farms > 15 AU ›Demands for low ammonia emissions

17 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Current regulations for enlargement Application year Base N excretion, normNex, kgReduction, % Maximum NH3-emission per produced pig, kg NH3-N / (reference) / / / / / (1)30 (from BAT) (1) (1) Weight interval kg Application year Base N excretion, normN exReduction, % Maximum NH3-emission per dairy cow (large breed), kg NH3-N/yr / (reference) / / / / / (from BAT) 7.01

18 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Approval of the Danish farms ›Status by 1 June 2010 ›Farmers having 22% of the current AU ( AU) in Denmark has applied and been approved ›The farms has applied for an approval of 33 % of the current Danish animal stock ( AU) ›An average increase of 50% per farm ›The approval shall be utilized within 2 years (approx.) ›The performance of the applicants ›Average NH3-N emission in the inventory: 15.8 kg NH3-N/AU ›Current emission:13.0 kg NH3-N/AU ›Approved emission:10.6 kg NH3-N/AU The applicants are some of the best performing farmers

19 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne The Wheel 2011 application round Result Lower normative Nex-values 30 % reductions obtained with Technique Lower CP in feed/less Nex 2012 applications etc. Forced to use lower normative Nex-values Expected average ammonia emission in the future for pigs and dairy cattle from stable and storage 7 kg NH3-N / AU

20 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Buffer zones ›Two different Natural areas ›Natura 2000, EU-legislation ›National interesting sites, ammonia sensitive areas (§3) ›7 % of the Danish agricultural area is in buffer zones ›Two buffer zones ›0-300 m (BZ I) ›No farms are allowed to be established ›No changes in existing farms are allowed if this increase the emission › m (BZ II) ›Maximum increase in deposition of kg N/ha ›The actual number depends on the number of animals within a range of 1000 m from the applicant ›Large farms: If a farm (>500 AU) outside BZ II has an influence on the deposition in the natural habitat, this shall taken into account ›Cumulative effect if more farms are in the vicinity

21 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Manure application ›No splash plates ›Mandatory injection on black soils and grass ›Mandatory injection in buffer zones for all crops from 2011 ›High costs in growing crops: damage and horse power ›Possible solution: acidification during application ›Cost: app. 50 €/ha excl. effect of increased N utilization Acidification when applied 1 Injection Hose-trail Acidification when applied 2 Acidification in the stable

22 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne CLR-Transboundary - AP Source: Maciej Kryza et al., 2011

23 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne CLR-Transboundary - AP Denmark has a highly intensive agriculture but: ›31 % of the deposited NHx to land is of Danish origin ›69 % is of foreign origin ›Please reduce your emissions

24 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Summing up ›Denmark has walked a long way ›and still there is a path to walk – full of stones ›The Danish national strengthening has a limited overall effect ›primarily on local habitats ›Large effects could be made if Europe follows the Danish example

25 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY TFRN, Rome May 2011 Steen Gyldenkærne Thanks for taking your time National borders exits only in our minds


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