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Reaction Yield Lesson 6

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Increasing the Yield of a Reaction The yield is the amount of products. The greater the yield the more products there are at equilibrium Chemists use LeChatelier’s Principle to maximize the equilibrium yield for a reaction. High Yield reactants products

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Increasing the Yield of a Reaction The yield is the amount of products. The greater the yield the more products there are at equilibrium Chemists use LeChatelier’s Principle to maximize the equilibrium yield for a reaction. Low Yield reactants products

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a high yield

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a high yield low temperature

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. 42 N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a high yield low temperature

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. 42 N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a high yield low temperature high pressure

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. 42 N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a high yield low temperature high pressure remove NH 3

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. 42 N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a high yield low temperature high pressure remove NH 3 add N 2 and H 2

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a reasonable rate

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a reasonable rate high temperature

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a reasonable rate high temperature catalysts Os & Ur

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a reasonable rate high temperature catalysts Os & Ur add N 2 & H 2

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The Haber Process is used to make ammonia. N 2(g) + 3H 2(g) ⇌ 2NH 3(g) + energy To ensure a reasonable rate high temperature- 500 o C catalysts Os & Ur add N 2 & H 2 high pressure

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N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the yield.

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N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the yield. low temperature

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the yield. low temperature

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the yield. low temperature low pressure

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the yield. low temperature low pressure add N 2 O 4 remove NO 2

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the rate.

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the rate. high temperature

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the rate. high temperature add a catalyst

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the rate. high temperature add a catalyst high pressure

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12 N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ Describe four ways of increasing the rate. high temperature add a catalyst high pressure add N 2 O 4

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Know the difference between Rate and Yield! Rate is how fast you get to equilibrium. Yield is the amount of product relative to reactants at equilibrium. reactants products

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1.What conditions will produce the greatest yield? P 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2PO 2(g) ∆H = -28 kJ A.high temperature & high pressure B.low temperature & low pressure C.high temperature & low pressure D.low temperature & high pressure

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1.What conditions will produce the greatest yield? P 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2PO 2(g) + 28kJ A.high temperature & high pressure B.low temperature & low pressure C.high temperature & low pressure D.low temperature & high pressure

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1.What conditions will produce the greatest yield? P 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2PO 2(g) + 28kJ A.high temperature & high pressure B.low temperature & low pressure C.high temperature & low pressure D.low temperature & high pressure

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2.What conditions will produce the greatest rate? Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → H 2(g) + ZnCl 2(aq) A.high Zn surface area, low [HCl], low temperature B.low Zn surface area, high [HCl], high temperature C.high Zn surface area, high [HCl], high temperature D.high Zn surface area, high [HCl], low temperature

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2.What conditions will produce the greatest rate? Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → H 2(g) + ZnCl 2(aq) A.high Zn surface area, low [HCl], low temperature B.low Zn surface area, high [HCl], high temperature C.high Zn surface area, high [HCl], high temperature D.high Zn surface area, high [HCl], low temperature

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3.What increases the rate? Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → H 2(g) + ZnCl 2(aq) A.removing H 2 B.removing ZnCl 2(aq) C.lowering pressure D.adding HCl

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3.What increases the rate? Zn (s) + 2HCl (aq) → H 2(g) + ZnCl 2(aq) A.removing H 2 B.removing ZnCl 2(aq) C.lowering pressure D.adding HCl

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 1. Increase Temperature [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 1. Increase Temperature [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 1. Increase Temperature [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 1. Increase Temperature [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2x

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 1. Increase Temperature [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2x x

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 2. Decrease Volume [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 2. Decrease Volume- all concentrations go up! [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 2. Decrease Volume- all concentrations + pressure goes up! [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 2. Decrease Volume- all concentrations + pressure goes up! [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 2. Decrease Volume- all concentrations + pressure goes up! [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 2. Decrease Volume- all concentrations + pressure goes up! [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2x x

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 3. Adding N 2 O 4 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 3. Adding N 2 O 4 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 3. Adding N 2 O 4 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] x

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 3. Adding N 2 O 4 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2x x

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 4. Removing NO 2 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 4. Removing NO 2 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 4. Removing NO 2 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 4. Removing NO 2 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ]

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 4. Removing NO 2 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2x

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Graphing Equilibrium N 2 O 4(g) ⇋ 2NO 2(g) + 59 KJ 4. Removing NO 2 [N 2 O 4 ] [NO 2 ] 2x x

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Le Chatelier’s Principle Ways to change rate of reaction: 1. Change concentration 2. Change temperature 3. Add a catalyst 4. Increase the surface area.

Le Chatelier’s Principle Ways to change rate of reaction: 1. Change concentration 2. Change temperature 3. Add a catalyst 4. Increase the surface area.

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