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1 Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Improved Nitric Acid Production via Cobalt Oxide Catalysis for use in Ammonia-based Fertilizers University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Chemical Engineering CHE 397 Senior Design II April 24, 2012 Mentor: Bill Keesom Thomas Calabrese (Team Leader) Cory Listner Hakan Somuncu David Sonna Kelly Zenger

2 2 Today’s Agenda  Recap of Questions from the Previous Meeting  Project Overview  Design Basis  Block Flow Diagram  Process Flow Diagram  Catalyst Choice  Environmental Issues Review  Economics  Process Safety Review  Report

3 3 Project Overview The nitric acid plant will be located in the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin, located in Northwest North Dakota. Over 1.85 trillion cubic feet natural gas

4 4 Wellhead gas will be purified by the Gas Purification Team and sent to the Ammonia Team. Ammonia Team will produce ammonia and send it to the Nitric Acid Team. Nitric Acid Team will convert ammonia to nitric acid. Nitric acid will be sent to Ammonium Nitrate Team Project Overview

5 5

6 6 Design Basis Produce 3,289 TPD of 63% wt. nitric acid solution (~14M)  Starting Reagents Ammonia (NH 3 ) – TPD Air – 10,332 TPD  Products 63% wt. Nitric Acid Solution (HNO 3 ) - 3,289 TPD Steam (1,250 psi, 970F) – 1,843 TPD  Environmental Concerns Oxides of Nitrogen (NO x ) (<200 ppm) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) (<200 ppm)

7 7 Ostwald Process Industry Standard for Nitric Acid Production  Ammonia Oxidation  Nitrogen Monoxide Oxidation  Absorption of Nitrogen Dioxide with Water Primary Chemical Reactions  Oxidation of Ammonia to Nitrogen Monoxide 4NH 3 (g) + 5O 2 (g)  4NO (g) + 6H 2 O (g)  Oxidation of Nitrogen Monoxide to Nitrogen Dioxide 2NO (g) + O 2 (g)  2NO 2 (g)  Reaction of Nitrogen Dioxide to Nitric Acid 2NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (l)  4HNO 3 (aq)

8 8 Block Flow Diagram

9 9 Process Flow Diagram

10 10 Platinum-RhodiumCobalt Oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) Cost ($/short ton of HNO 3 produced) $3 - $4$ $0.75 Lifespan3-4 months12 months Downtime  4 hours to replace gauze at end of lifespan  Remove Rhodium Oxide buildup (every 3-4 weeks) None Conversion Efficiency 93% - 96%95% - 98% Operating Parameters psi, °F0-95 psi, 1549 °F UseVery common, industry standardNew, commercial use DrawbacksCost, lifespan, and greater N 2 O formation New reactor design, deactivation to CoO Benefits of Cobalt Oxide

11 Controlling N 2 O Release Primary Methods-reduce N 2 O formed during ammonia oxidation  70-85% efficiency  Add an “empty” reaction chamber between the catalyst bed and the first heat exchanger (increase residence time)  Modify the catalyst used during the ammonia oxidation Secondary Methods-reduce N 2 O formed immediately after ammonia oxidation (Selective Catalytic Reduction)  Up to 90% efficiency  Secondary catalyst is used to promote N 2 O decomposition by increasing the residence time in the ammonia burner  2N 2 O (g)  2N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 11

12 12 Controlling N 2 O Release Tertiary Methods-reduce N 2 O from or to the tail gas (Non-Selective Catalytic Reduction)  % efficiency  A reagent fuel (e.g. H 2 from an ammonia plant purge) is used over a catalyst to produce N 2 and water  Alternatively, following SCR the tail gas is mixed with ammonia and reacts over a second catalyst bed to give N 2 and water

13 13 Economics: Materials Materials MaterialRequirementBase CostTotal Cost [per year] Air10,344 TPD$0.00/ton$0.00 Ammonia Vapor571.5 TPD$350/ton$73,009,125 Nitric Acid* (SOLD)2,571.2 TPD$220/ton$206,467,360 Nitric Acid** (SOLD)717.8 TPD$300/ton$78,599,100 Steam (SOLD)1,843 TPD$20/ton$13,451,491 Cobalt Oxide Catalyst-$0.50/ton acid$476,454 TOTAL+ $225,000,000/year *Sold to Ammonium Nitrate, **Sold to Open Market

14 14 ICARUS Yearly Operating Costs ItemCost Operating Labor$640,000 Maintenance$905,000 Supervision$200,000 Operating Charges$230,000 Plant Overhead$912,000 Utilities$9,500,000 TOTAL-$13,000,000/year ICARUS Installed Costs ItemCost Equipment (Installed Cost)$329,370,000 Piping$1,900,000 Civil$530,000 Steel$100,000 Instrumentation$1,000,000 Electrical$2,500,000 Paint$100,000 Other$4,500,000 G&A Overheads$1,000,000 Contingencies$7,000,000 TOTAL CAPITAL COST$348,000,000 Economics: ICARUS

15 15 Economics: NPV Payback Period: 7 years Expected Plant Life: 20 years Interest Rate: 8% Inflation Rate: 3% Installation Time: 3 years Installation Cost: $348 million Net Present Value after 20 years: $984 million Internal Rate of Return: 23.98% Yearly Profit ItemCost Materials+$225,032,372 Operation & Maintenance-$2,900,000 Utilities-$9,535,283 TOTALEst. Profit: $213,000,000/year

16 16 Process Safety I  Large release of process chemicals due to catastrophic failure  Be prepared, emergency procedure with LECP  Prevention of release & associated problems :  Neutralizing materials  Initial construction of components  Release valves  Bunding, dikes  Ventilation  Fireproofing  Low release of process chemicals  Caused by operator error, poor maintenance

17 17 Process Safety II Other Safety Precautions Long-term exposure  Maintain PEL and STEL as dictated by OSHA Noise  Governed by OSHA, PEL of 90 dB  Maintain & lubricate equipment, sound barriers, limiting exposure General protection  Insulate or guard heated surfaces on working floor  Good lighting  Railings & non-slip surfaces  Training, safety checklists

18 18 Completed Report Open Report

19 19 Summary  Recap of Questions from the Previous Meeting  Project Overview  Design Basis  Block Flow Diagram  Process Flow Diagram  Catalyst Choice  Environmental Issues Review  Economics  Process Safety Review  Report

20 20 References Parkinson, Richard. UOP. Where Does It Go? An Introduction to the Placement of Process Equipment Available and Emerging Technologies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nitric Acid Production Industry. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Best Available Techniques for Pollution Prevention and Control in the European Fertilizer Industry, Production of Nitric Acid. EFMA

21 21 Questions?


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