Presentation on theme: "2.1 1 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR CGE Hands-on Training Workshop on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for the African Region Pretoria, South Africa 18-22."— Presentation transcript:
2.1 1 INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES SECTOR CGE Hands-on Training Workshop on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for the African Region Pretoria, South Africa September 2006 PHILIP ACQUAH Director Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ghana
2.2 2 SECTION A Re96gl Approach and Steps Definition of IP Sector Activities Differentiation Non-energy and Energy- related Emissions IPCC Source and Sub-source Categories or Disaggregation Estimation Methods Choice of Methods Choice of Activity Data Choice of Default Emission Factors Tools facilitating Choice of EF and Reporting IPCC Emission Factor Database (EFDB) Tools facilitating Reporting
2.3 3 SECTION B GPG 2000 APPROACH AND STEPS Good Practice Principles Choice of Methods-Tier structure and selection criteria GPG 2000 Potential key Sources and Decision Trees
2.4 4 SECTION C Review of Problems Encountered using Re96GL, GPG2000 Options and/or Suggested Approaches Difficulty in disaggregation of Country relevant Sources Activity Data (AD) Collection and CBI Emissions Estimation methods and Reporting Inappropriateness of Stoichiometric ratios as EFs Lack of Emission Factors (2) Lack of AD and EFs
2.5 5 SECTION C Review of Problems Encountered using Re96GL, and Recommendations n Other Specific Issues and n Use of Notation Keys in Reporting Tables 1& 2 n Activity Data (AD) Collection and Reporting n Institutional Arrangements n Recommended capacity building
2.6 6 SECTION D Re96GL source-category specific problems of AD and EF GPG 2000 OPTIONS
2.7 7 SECTION E Inventory Quality Improvement and Uncertainty Reduction GPG APPROACH- QA/QC
2.8 8 SECTION A REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES (Re96GL) INDUSTRIAL PROCESS SECTOR Approach and Steps
2.9 9 Re96GL Approach and Steps Definition of IP Sector Activities Non-energy related physical and chemical processes in production activities leading to transformation of raw materials and emissions of GHG (e.g. decomposition reactions)
Re96GL Approach and Steps Definition of IP Sector Activities non-energy uses (NEU) of feedstock in process reactions or stage processes that do not only release heat but also act predominantly as reducing agent (e.g. metallurgical coke in the smelting of ores in metal production)
Re96GL Approach and Steps Definition of IP Sector Activities Feedstock delivered to petrochemical plants and used for manufacture of other products and not for energy purposes (e.g. use of natural gas or other fossils in the manufacture of ammonia)
Re96GL Approach and Steps Definition of IP Sector Activities Production-related emissions NOT classified under IP but under energy sector are GHGs released from fuel combustion of feedstock in production activities as sources of energy/ form of energy ( i.e. heat, process steam or electricity generation).
Re96GL Approach and Steps Differentiation Non-energy and Energy-related Emissions in Re96GL Vol.3 Cement production Section Lime production, Soda ash production and Use Ammonia production and Silicon carbide Calcium Carbide Iron and Steel Ferro alloys Aluminum
Illustration of non-energy and energy related emissions from Re96GL Vol. 3 (Reference Manual) Differentiation of Non-Energy and Energy Related Emissions in IP sector
Re96GL Approach and Steps IPCC Source and Sub-source Categories or Disaggregation Tools for classification: The IPCC inventory software (electronic version of IPCC worksheet) Emission Factor data Base ‘EFDB
Illustration with EFDB and Software Re96GL Sources and Subsource Categories/Disaggregation
GHGs from IP sector (a) CO2, CH4, N2O, (b) HFCs, PFCs, SF6, (c) SO2,CO, Nox, NMVOCs Relevant Source Categories (ref. Software long summary
Re96GL Approach and Steps General Estimation Methodology General Equation TOTALij = AD j x EF ij where: TOTAL ij = process emission (tonne) of gas i from industrial sector j AD j = amount of activity or production of process material (Activity Data) in industrial sector j (tonne/yr) EF ij = emission factor (EF) associated with gas i per unit of activity in industrial sector j (tonne/tonne)
Re96GL Approach and Steps Choice of Methods For certain industrial processes, more than one estimation methodology is presented. These are: Simplified approach referred to as Tier 1 More detailed methodology referred to as Tier 2.
Re96GL Approach and Steps Choice of Methods Several options are also provided for certain industrial processes under Tier 1, as Tier 1a, 1b, 1c; based on data availability and suitability of methods Order of preference for Tier 1 methods 1a>1b>1c Encourages Country-Specific methods, documented and adequately referenced
Re96GL Approach and Steps Sample Tiers by Sub-source Categories 2B1- Ammonia production (CO2) Tier1a-AD as natural gas consumption (m3) and EF (kgC/m3) Tier 1b-AD as ammonia production (tonnes) and EF (tonne CO2/tonne NH3) 2C5-Calcium Carbide Production (CO2) T1a -Consumption of petroleum coke (tonne) and EF (tonne C/tonne Coke type) T1b-production of carbide
Re96GL Approach and Steps Tiers by Sub-source Categories 2C-Metal production (Iron and Steel, Al, Ferro-alloys) Tier 1a-consumption of reducing agent (tonne) and EF (tonne C/tonne reducing agent) Tier 1b-production of the metal (tonnes) and EF (tonne CO2/tonne metal)
Re96GL Approach and Steps Tiers by Sub-source Categories PFCs from aluminum production Tier 1a-direct plant emissions data Tier 1b-estimation based on plant measurements and empirical estimation Tire 1c-based on aluminum production (tonnes) and default emissions factor (kg/tonne Al)
Re96GL Approach and Steps Tiers by Sub-source Categories 2F- HCFC manufacture (HFC-23 release) Tier 1- AD (total production (tonnes) and Default EF (% of total production) Tier2- direct emissions from plant specific measurements using standard methods 2E-Consumption of ODS substitutes (HFCs, PFCs and SF6) Tire 1a and Tier b -potential emissions Tier 2 -actual emissions
Re96GL Approach and Steps Choice of Activity Data Plant level measurements or direct emissions reports with documented methodologies Where direct measurements are not available, estimations are based on calculation with plant-specific data
Re96GL Approach and Steps Choice of Activity Data International data set ( United Nations data sets and Industry associations ) National data bases where available from appropriate government ministries (e.g. Statistics Services, EPAs) Standard production statistics from national statistical publications.
Re96GL Approach and Steps Choice of Default Emission Factors Process reaction-based EFs (Stoichiometric Ratios) Production-based emission factors Technology-specific emission Factors Reported Country/Region-specific plant-level measurements IPCC Emission Factors Data Base (EFDB), a summary for process reaction-based and technology-based EFs
ILLUSTRATE USE OF EMISSION FACTOR DATABASE (EFDB) FOR IP SECTOR Re96GL Approach and Steps
Comparability of IPCC Technology-based Default EF and good practice Plant-level EF The case of Aluminum production inventory in Ghana
Good practice Activity Data (Plant-level EF based on Tier 1a Method)
Consumption of reducing agent (anode carbon)
Net carbon consumption
Comparability of good practice plant level and IPCC Default Process Parameter Country Specific (Plant level Tier 2) 7-year average IPCC Default including baking emissions (5%) Net Carbon consumption assuming 98% purity of anode carbon tonne C/tonne Emission factor (tonne CO2/tonne Al.) % Difference +3.5%
Emissions Estimation and Reporting Use of IPCC Electronic Inventory Software Re96GL Approach and Steps
REPORTING TABLES Long Summary and Short summary (Reference : IPCC Inventory Software)
SECTION B SECTION B IP SECTOR INVENTORIES GPG 2000 APPROACH AND STEPS
GGPG 2000 Approach and Steps Good Practice Principles To produce inventories, which neither over/under estimate emissions so far as can be judged based on the principle of TCCCA, namely: Transparency; Consistency over time; Completeness, Comparability, Accuracy
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps Good Practice Principles To use limited resources more efficiently for key sources To reduce level of Uncertainties To improve reporting and documentation To apply quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) and improve transparency
GGPG 2000 Approach and Steps Choice of Methods Identifies potential IP sector key source categories Provides Decision Tree analysis for the selected sources Describes source category-specific good practice methods in adapting Re96GL to country-specific circumstances
GGPG 2000 Approach and Steps Choice of Methods Defines Tier numbers for alternative names of methods described in Re96GL but are not numbered Provides good practice guidance for various Tier levels of assessment (Tier 1, 2, 3) for selected source categories
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps GPG 2000 Potential key Sources Identified 2A1-CO2 Emissions from Cement Production 2A2-CO2 Emissions from Lime Production 2C1-CO2 Emissions from the Iron and Steel Industry 2B3 & 2B4 N2O Emissions from Adipic Acid and Nitric Acid Production 2C3-PFCs Emissions from Aluminum Production 2C4-Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) emissions from Magnesium Production 2E1-HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Manufacture
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps GPG 2000 Potential key Sources Identified 2F(1-5)- Emissions from Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS substitutes) from HFCs and PFCs used in refrigeration, air- conditioning, foam blowing, fire extinguishers, aerosols, solvents ) 2F7-SF6 Emissions from Electrical Equipment 2F8-SF6 Emissions from Other Sources of SF6 2E3-SF6 Emissions from Production of SF6 2F6-PFC, HFC, and SF6 Emissions from Semiconductor Manufacturing.
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps Decision Trees, and Selection criteria for Methods and Structured Tier levels
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps Decision Trees, and selection criteria for methods and Tier levels 2A1-Cement production CO2Figure 3.1 pg C1- Iron and Steel Production (CO2)Figure 3.2 pg B1 &2B2 Nitric Acid and Adipic Acid (NO2) 2C1-Aluminum production (PFC) Figure 3.4 pg 3.32 Figure 3.5 pg C-Use of SF6 in magnesium production (SF6) Figure 3.6 pg E &2F- ODS SubstitutesFigure 3.11 pg 3.80
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps SAMPLE ILLUSTRATIONS OF TIER LEVEL METHODS IN ADAPTING RE96GL BASED ON NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES Reference Annex 3 Table 3 IP Handbook
SECTION C REVIEW OF PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN USING Re96GL and GPG 2000 OPTIONS
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Difficulty in disaggregation of Country relevant Sources into IPCC categories particularly sub-source categories not listed in Re96GL.
mapping national industry classification with IPCC Source categories
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Activity Data (AD) Collection and CBI Direct reporting of emissions without AD and/or EF to national institutions responsible for data collection because of Confidential Business Information (CBI),
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Emissions Estimation methods and Reporting The reporting of industrial process emissions from non-energy use (NEU) of feedstock produced in combination with fuel combustion under Energy Sector due to the difficulty in differentiation and possible double counting of CO2.
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Emissions Estimation methods and Reporting Direct plant level measurement and reporting of industrial process emissions of CO2 from chemical processes or stage processes in combination with fuel combustion emissions from energy uses of feedstock (e.g. CO2 emissions from CaCO3 decomposition and metallurgical coke oxidation in Solvay process).
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Inappropriateness of Stoichiometric ratios as EFs Where technology-specific or plant-level data are not available, EF(D) are based on stoichiometric ratios of process reactions..
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Lack of Emission Factors (2) lack of development of plant-level EFs, which leads to the estimation of EFs based on top -down ratios calculated as EF= Emissions / Aggregate AD).
Re96GL source-category specific Problems GPG 2000 Tier1 good practice Options Sample Source Category Estimations 2.A.1Cement Production 2.A.2 Lime Production 2.A.1 Limestone and Dolomite Use 2.C.1 Iron and Steel Reference Table 2 IP Handbook
Other specific problems encountered in the use of Re96GL SUGGESTED APPROACHES/OPTIONS
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory - Use of Notation Keys in Reporting Tables 1& 2 Inappropriate use and/or limited use of notation keys ( “ NO ”, “ NE ”, “ NA ”, “ IE ”, “ NE ” ) in UNFCCC reporting Table 1 and Table 2.
NO (not occurring) for activities or processes that do not occur for a particular gas or source/sink category within a country, NE (not estimated) for existing emissions and removals which have not been estimated, NA (not applicable) for activities in a given source/sink category which do not result in emissions or removals of a specific gas,. Completeness and Transparency in Reporting - Use of Notation Keys
IE (included elsewhere) for emissions and removals estimated but included elsewhere in the inventory (Parties should indicate where the emissions or removals have been included), C (confidential) for emissions and removals which could lead to the disclosure of confidential information. Completeness and Transparency in Reporting - Use of Notation Keys
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Activity Data (AD) Collection and Reporting Production data on large point sources may be available in various national institutions in data sets that are not easily converted to GGI data Where available, mandatory or voluntary plant-level data are reported as total emissions without relevant AD and EF
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Lack of Emission Factors (1) Mandatory industry reports (e.g. annual environmental reports) provide only emissions estimates without AD and/or EF. Lack of IPCC D-EFs due to differences in IPCC source and sub-source categories and disaggregation of country-relevant sources,
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Institutional Arrangements National institutions and industry association collect and present data in formats not appropriate for GHG estimation because they are normally aggregated in data sets relevant for the purposes for which they are collected. Limited awareness among industry/industry associations of opportunities under the Convention and therefore not motivated to develop capacity for reporting GHG inventories.
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Institutional Arrangement Lack of institutional arrangement and clarity over roles and responsibilities of experts carrying out the technical studies. Lack of legal and institutional authority to demand data from industry to carry out the inventories- (reporting is basically voluntary)
Potential problems in preparing IP Sector Inventory Institutional Arrangement Non-involvement of universities and/or research centres on CC issues that can evolve a more sustainable inventory system. Lack of mainstreaming CC data collection by national statistical services and industry associations in data collection. Lack of QA/QC and uncertainty analysis by data collection institutions
Intuitional Arrangement Problems Recommended capacity building Institute a national working group of relevant stakeholders for plant level verification and peer review of the inventory report Organise a capacity building seminar for all institutions and relevant GHG contributing industries to disseminate the IP inventory data sets, the need of QA/QC and plant specific good practice for development and reporting AD and EFs in GGI data sets
Intuitional Arrangement Problems Recommended capacity building Adapt Re96GL and GPG2000 and develop country specific workbooks documenting methods, Ads, EFs to increase transparency and preserve institutional memory Disseminate the opportunities of emissions reduction under the Convention and the Financing Mechanisms under the Protocol in the capacity building workshop to motivate industry participation
Review and Assessment of Activity data and Emission Factors Data status and Options
GPG 2000 Approach and Steps Inventory Quality Improvement and Uncertainty Reduction QA/QC APPROACH