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NitroEurope IP Nitrogen and the European GHG balance Sutton, Mark A., Jan Willem Erisman, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Claus Beier, Wim de Vries, Pierre Cellier,

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Presentation on theme: "NitroEurope IP Nitrogen and the European GHG balance Sutton, Mark A., Jan Willem Erisman, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Claus Beier, Wim de Vries, Pierre Cellier,"— Presentation transcript:

1 NitroEurope IP Nitrogen and the European GHG balance Sutton, Mark A., Jan Willem Erisman, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Claus Beier, Wim de Vries, Pierre Cellier, Francesca Cotrufo, Eiko Nemitz, Ute Skiba, Mark Theobald, Ulrike Dragosits, Claire Campbell, Marcel van Oijen, Bridget Emmett, Lucy Sheppard, David Fowler, Albert Bleeker, Alex Vermeulen, Nicolas Bruggeman, Kim Pilegaard, Oene Oenema, Hans Kros, Jean-François Soussana, Günther Seufert, Adrian Leip, Peter Bergamaschi, Albrecht Neftel, Juerg Fuhrer, Jan K. Schjoerring, Per Gundersen, Annette Freibauer, Vincenzo Magliulo, Sophie Zechmeister- Boltenstern, Timo Vesala, Jørgen E. Olesen, Bob Rees, Pete Smith, Jo Smith, Michael Obersteiner, Andre van Amstel, Bogdan Chojnicki, Tuomas Laurila, László Horváth, Lars R. Hole, Jan Duyzer, John Moncrieff, Keith Smith, Riccardo Valentini, Volodymyr Medinets, Leif Klemedtsson, Franco Miglietta, Zoltán Tuba, Oswald Van Cleemput, Michael Sommer, Per-Erik Jansson, Lech Ryszkowski, Lutz Breuer, Alistair Manning, Ulrich Dämmgen, Josep Peñuelas, Peringe Grennfelt, Filip Moldan, Albert Tietema, Torben R. Christensen, Antonio Vallejo, Patrick Schleppi, Eva Boegh, Jari Liski and Zoltán Bozóki and quite a few others….

2 Why care about nitrogen? 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1850190019502000 Year World population and Agricultural surface 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Fertilizers and NOx World population milions Agricul. surface milions ha Fertilizer Tgr NOx emissions

3 Fertilizer manufacture Atmospheric N 2 fixed to reactive nitrogen (N R ) NRNR Crops for food & animal feed NRNR Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Leached Nitrate (NO 3 - ) Further emission of NO x & N 2 O carrying on the cascade Livestock farming Natural ecosystems Ammonium nitrate in rain (NH 4 NO 3 ) Nitrate in streamwaters The Nitrogen Cascade Terrestrial Eutrophication & Soil Acidification Aquatic Eutrophication GHG balance Particulate Matter

4 The Nitrogen Challenge Multi-source agriculture, fossil fuel, natural Multi-pollutant N 2 O, NO x, NH 3, aquatic NO 3 -, aerosol etc Multi-problem GHG balance, biodiversity, water quality, human health Multi-receptor Forests & other terrest. ecosystems, agriculture, rivers, stratosphere, urban, coastal & marine, humans Can the scientific community handle it?

5 Land-atmosphere exchange of nitrogen Nitrogen community previously split into separated research efforts Ammonia (NH 3 ) Aerosol NH 4 NO 3 Nitric Acid (HNO 3 ) Nitric oxide (NO) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) Wet deposition NH 4 + and NO 3 - Volatile Organic Nitrogen (VON) Particle Organic Nitrogen (PON) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Net GHG GRAMINAE NOFRETETE GREENGRASS

6 NitroEurope IP What is the effect of reactive nitrogen supply on the direction and magnitude of net greenhouse gas budgets for Europe? Effect of N on the GHG balance:  GHG ?  GHG N 2 O (+2’ from NH 3, NO 3 - ) Cattle CH 4 C uptake by plants CH 4 from wetlandsSOM decompositionNitrogen aerosol NO x  O 3  less primary production

7 NitroEurope Overall Science Structure Plus four supporting components: C7. Standards and Data ManagementC9: NEU Training C8. NEU Management C10: NEU Dissemination

8 C1 Flux Networks Methods development Integrated air, plant and soil data Process understanding Linking Tasks and Delivery in NEU C2 Manipulation Process testing System responses to perturbation Interactions between drivers

9 Linking Tasks and Delivery in NEU C3 Plot-scale modelling Reconstruction of observations Explanation of interactions Prediction of future responses DNDC C4 Landscape analysis Spatial interactions Complexity Management interactions Abatement strategies Nitrogen deposition

10 Linking Tasks and Delivery in NEU C5 European Integration Upscaling Improving input datasets Ecosystem vs multi-sector models Past changes and future scenarios Grassland N 2 O emission PASIM C6: Verification Independent data check Uncertainty assessment Protocol compliance Revision of IPPC/UNECE values Inverse model CH 4 emission estimates

11 NitroEurope: Flux network (C1) & Manipulation network (C2) 13 Super Sites 9 Regional Sites 50 Inferential Sites 22 Core Manipulation Sites 14 Assoc. Manipulation Sites

12 N 2 O Hoeglwald NEU Level 3 site

13 NEU Level 3 site Oensingen Organic N Inorganic N NO/NO 2 - Exchange N2O – Emission and Uptake NH3 – bidirectional exchange Run Off with dissolved N 2 O, NO 3 - Export: Harvest (hay, silage) Import: Fertilizer N2 – Fixation N-content in applied manure 3 dynamic chambers for NO, NO 2, O3 4 automated static chambers and campaigns with QCL-EC 15 N isotopic labelling on 6 subplots Gradient fluxes with „Flairmonia C, N content in yield Soil profiles with METT System 2 sucking candle installed with remote control Investigation of possibilities to measure EC fluxes with PTR-MS

14 The NEU L1 DELTA Network

15 Examples of DELTA NH x data from the UK Bush, nr Edinburgh

16 NitroEurope Manipulation Network (NEU C2) Sites and experiments Arable Forest Shrub/wet Grass N H2O+N N N & Temp Cutting H2O CO2+N Afforest+ H2O LU change Drain peat conversion cultivation H2O+N cultivation T+H2O+CO2 T+H2O Drain peat N form T+H2O N&P (CH4) Grazing T+H2O+CO2 CO2+N T+N Draining/flooding LU change Crop rotat.

17 The effect of N on the GHG balance …


19 Further information See 2 nd General Assembly Paestum, Italy (5-9 Feb 2006) Project Office –Stefan Reis, Joyce Luk –Email:

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