2Anhydrous Ammonia Uses of Ammonia: 80% used for Agriculture directly (aqueous) or indirect (compounds)Metal heat treating, annealing, and hardeningProduction of Nitric AcidAcid neutralization in water treatment facilitiesPetroleum and Mining industries to extract chemicals and oresPower plant stack emissions reductionDiesel Engine pollution reduction (in the form of urea)Beverage industry to supply nitrogen for yeast and other organisms.Leather Industry to cure hidesIndustrial RefrigerationHeat recovery air conditioning (absorption refrigeration)
3Anhydrous Ammonia Physical Characteristics: Pungent Odor, detectable at 3-5 PPMHydrophilic – Likes water. Creates a strong base, 14pHLikes water means it likes living thingsTEV/TLV at 25 PPM for 8 hours, TWAIDLH at 300 for ½ hourMost NH3 technicians can stand 200 to 400 for over 2 hoursArm pits and crotch will begin to burn over 2 hoursFlammable at 12,000 to 16,000 PPM, cleanFlammable down to 4,000 PPM with oil aerosolBoils at -28dF at 14.7 PSIA, Liquid will cause freeze burnsNever add heat (water) to liquid ammoniaVery corrosive in concentrated ammonia solutionsLighter than air when dry, heavier in moist air or around water
4Anhydrous Ammonia Exposure Levels: 50 PPM OSHA PEL, 8 hours per day, lifetime, no ill effects300 PPM, IDLH, ½ hour to get out of the situation, no ill effects700 PPM, discomfort and coughing even for ammonia guys1,700 PPM, cannot breath, will die soon40,000 PPM, white cloud of water vapor/ammonia forms. If an oil aerosol is involved, cloud can ignite.12-16,000 PPM are the lower and upper flammability limits.
5Anhydrous Ammonia Regulatory Requirements: OSHA PSM Required above 10,000# per systemEPA RMP Required above 10,000# per systemHomeland Security report requires above 10,000# total at siteGeneral Duty Clause – Use Best Industry Practices at all facilitiesMust have written maintenance procedures to prevent releasesMust have written emergency response plans to mitigate any releasesMust train all employees in ammonia awareness and evacuation plansPHA Required reviews by May every 5 yearsMust report any accidental release over 100 pounds to authorities
6Anhydrous Ammonia Safety Precautions: Establish written instructions and Standard Operating ProceduresDesignate who is authorized to work in the machine room or around ammonia containing equipmentPosted phone list of 911, Responsible Parties (at least 2), internal response team, external response team (contractor) and regulatory notification numbers.Establish R.P. role and designate a different person to make phone calls.Invite local fire officials to review the facility.Communicate primary and secondary evacuation muster sitesDrill baby Drill! Action plans not practiced are not plans.
11Anhydrous Ammonia If it is so bad, why do we use it for refrigeration? Most efficient refrigerant. Saves 2-5% over R-22 on engineered refrigeration systems30% savings over air cooled commercial systemsLeaks are easily detectedLighter than air, does not usually displace O21/10 the cost per pound and requires ½ charge of R-22Requires long lasting industrial grade equipmentLess expensive to install on large systems
12Machinery Room Requirements 1. What codes/standards apply?Who is involved with compliance?Key design elements.Code analysis worksheet.Additional ConsiderationsDiscussion.