Presentation on theme: "Ammonia Awareness Training. Anhydrous Ammonia Uses of Ammonia: 80% used for Agriculture directly (aqueous) or indirect (compounds) Metal heat treating,"— Presentation transcript:
Ammonia Awareness Training
Anhydrous Ammonia Uses of Ammonia: 80% used for Agriculture directly (aqueous) or indirect (compounds) Metal heat treating, annealing, and hardening Production of Nitric Acid Acid neutralization in water treatment facilities Petroleum and Mining industries to extract chemicals and ores Power plant stack emissions reduction Diesel Engine pollution reduction (in the form of urea) Beverage industry to supply nitrogen for yeast and other organisms. Leather Industry to cure hides Industrial Refrigeration Heat recovery air conditioning (absorption refrigeration)
Anhydrous Ammonia Physical Characteristics: Pungent Odor, detectable at 3-5 PPM Hydrophilic – Likes water. Creates a strong base, 14pH Likes water means it likes living things TEV/TLV at 25 PPM for 8 hours, TWA IDLH at 300 for ½ hour Most NH3 technicians can stand 200 to 400 for over 2 hours Arm pits and crotch will begin to burn over 2 hours Flammable at 12,000 to 16,000 PPM, clean Flammable down to 4,000 PPM with oil aerosol Boils at -28dF at 14.7 PSIA, Liquid will cause freeze burns Never add heat (water) to liquid ammonia Very corrosive in concentrated ammonia solutions Lighter than air when dry, heavier in moist air or around water
Anhydrous Ammonia Exposure Levels: 50 PPM OSHA PEL, 8 hours per day, lifetime, no ill effects 300 PPM, IDLH, ½ hour to get out of the situation, no ill effects 700 PPM, discomfort and coughing even for ammonia guys 1,700 PPM, cannot breath, will die soon 40,000 PPM, white cloud of water vapor/ammonia forms. If an oil aerosol is involved, cloud can ignite ,000 PPM are the lower and upper flammability limits.
Anhydrous Ammonia Regulatory Requirements: OSHA PSM Required above 10,000# per system EPA RMP Required above 10,000# per system Homeland Security report requires above 10,000# total at site General Duty Clause – Use Best Industry Practices at all facilities Must have written maintenance procedures to prevent releases Must have written emergency response plans to mitigate any releases Must train all employees in ammonia awareness and evacuation plans PHA Required reviews by May every 5 years Must report any accidental release over 100 pounds to authorities
Anhydrous Ammonia Safety Precautions: Establish written instructions and Standard Operating Procedures Designate who is authorized to work in the machine room or around ammonia containing equipment Posted phone list of 911, Responsible Parties (at least 2), internal response team, external response team (contractor) and regulatory notification numbers. Establish R.P. role and designate a different person to make phone calls. Invite local fire officials to review the facility. Communicate primary and secondary evacuation muster sites Drill baby Drill! Action plans not practiced are not plans.
Anhydrous Ammonia If it is so bad, why do we use it for refrigeration? Most efficient refrigerant. Saves 2-5% over R-22 on engineered refrigeration systems 30% savings over air cooled commercial systems Leaks are easily detected Lighter than air, does not usually displace O2 1/10 the cost per pound and requires ½ charge of R-22 Requires long lasting industrial grade equipment Less expensive to install on large systems
Machinery Room Requirements 1. What codes/standards apply? 2.Who is involved with compliance? 3.Key design elements. 4.Code analysis worksheet. 5.Additional Considerations 6.Discussion.
Machinery Room Web ASHRAE ANSI/IIAR 2, 1999 IMC 2004IFC 2004 LOCAL CODES W/ REVISIONS END USER INTERPRETATION OSHA REG EPA REG END USER DEGREE OF COMPLIANCE
Machinery Room Compliance Interested Parties Architect/Engineer of Record Construction Team-Contractors Plan Check and Code Officials Inspectors Fire Marshall Corporate Safety Officer Insurance Company Employees OSHA EPA
Key Design Elements Egress / Exits Access Separation / Fire Walls Electrical No Open Flames Signage and Markings Ventilation Detection and Alarming Pressure Relief System Emergency Controls
Typical Machine Room Layout
Code Analysis Worksheet
Additional Considerations Lighting Safety Equipment (Respirators, Eyewash, etc) Layout of Equipment Drainage Trip Hazards Passage to Exits Mechanical Integrity Inspections Record Keeping P&IDs Valve Tagging OSHA/EPA 10,000# rule
Additional Considerations Separate Control Room, egress Managing Expansions, New Codes Grandfather Clauses Permitting and Inspection New 2007 IMC/IFC issued New ASHRAE 15 issued New ANSI/IIAR 2 forthcoming New DHS risk assessment rules