Presentation on theme: "Ammonia. Why study ammonia? Why is ammonia used in fertilisers? it provides nitrogen for plants to make plant proteins necessary for growth and repair."— Presentation transcript:
Why study ammonia?
Why is ammonia used in fertilisers? it provides nitrogen for plants to make plant proteins necessary for growth and repair of plant cells nitrogen fertilisers promote plant growth and increase crop yields
Nitrogenous Fertilisers most plants are unable to make use of atmospheric nitrogen (79%) directly plants get nitrogen supply by absorbing soluble nitrogen compounds from the soil Examples: ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, urea CO(NH 2 ) 2
Reversible Reaction reactions that can go either direction forward and backward reactions take place at the same time
Reversible Reaction do not go into completion reactions achieve equilibrium [ equilibrium is achieved when amounts of reactants and products no longer change ] a mixture of reactants and products at the end of the reaction amounts of reactants and products at equilibrium can be changed by altering conditions [e.g. temperature and pressure]
The Haber Process invented in 1908 by Fritz Haber originally used to make explosives soon became the main source of ammonia to make nitrogen fertilisers
The Haber Process
Effect of conditions on the yield of ammonia temperature A lower temperature increases the yield of ammonia. However, a lower temperature also results in a slower reaction.
Effect of conditions on the yield of ammonia pressure A greater pressure increases the yield of ammonia, as well as the rate of reaction. However, maintaining higher pressure is costly and involves a safety risk.
Conditions for Haber Process temperature of 450 °C pressure of 250 atm presence of iron catalyst for maximum yield of ammonia
An undesirable effect is produced when calcium hydroxide is added to the soil together with a nitrogenous fertiliser. Explain why it is not advisable to do so.
Displacement of Ammonia from its Salts Heating an ammonium salt with an alkali displaces the ammonia from the salt. 2NH 4 Cl(s) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + 2NH 3 (g) + H 2 O(l)