Presentation on theme: "E-Africa Building e-Governance Capacity in African Countries by Gianluca Misuraca Adviser, G&PA UNPAN-CAFRAD."— Presentation transcript:
e-Africa Building e-Governance Capacity in African Countries by Gianluca Misuraca Adviser, G&PA UNPAN-CAFRAD
Government: a public organization – is part of a broader governance system. It is a means to a goal. These days, government is seen predominantly as a public organization set up by a society for the purpose of pursuing that society’s development objectives. This comprises articulating the society’s development-related demands, proposals and needs, aggregating them and implementing responsive solutions. Enjoyment of public consent constitutes the source of government’s legitimacy. Transparency is a condition sine qua non for government’s accountability vis-à-vis its oversight body. (U.N. World Public Sector Report, 2003 - www.unpan.org )www.unpan.org Definitions and Basic Concepts:
e-Government: the continuous optimization of Government service delivery, constituency participation, and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet and new media. In particular, e-government technologies can improve significantly the capacity of co-ordination among different branches and bodies of government, and communication among governments, citizens and business. ( Gartner Group: www.gartner.group.com )www.gartner.group.com Definitions and Basic Concepts:
Governance: is a multifaceted composed situation of institutions, systems, structures, processes, procedures, practices, relationships, and leadership behaviors in the exercise of social, political, economic and managerial/administrative activity into running of public or private affairs. Good governance is the exercise of this authority with the participation, interest, and livelihood of the governed as the driving force (UNDESA/DPADM/GPAB). Definitions and Basic Concepts:
e-Governance: the adoption of a new conception and attitude of governing and managing where participation and efficiency are required of all the partners linked in a network. e-Governance is therefore a new way of coordinating, planning, formulating and implementing governments decisions and operations. Governments can utilize e-Governance to re-invent themselves, get closer to the citizenry and forge closer alliances and partnerships with diverse communities of interest, practice, expertise, conviction and inter-dependence within the context of national and international development agendas. (CAFRAD, www.cafrad.org, and see also IADB www.iadb.org)www.cafrad.orgwww.iadb.org Definitions and Basic Concepts:
In 2003, UNDESA/DPADM undertook a Global e-Government Survey based on the following indicators: 1. e-Government Readiness Index: is a composite index comprising Web-Meausre Index; Teleccomunications Infrastructure Index and Human Capital Index; 2.e-Participation Index: is a proxi to measure the willingness and ability of a state not only to provide relevant information and quality services, but also to engage citizens in dialogue in the process of service delivery and, most importantly, in public policy making through use of Internet. (UN e-government Global Survey 2003, www.unpan.org).www.unpan.org In particular, the e-Participation Analysis resulted in the following framework. How to measure e-governance ?
e-Participation Framework: 1.e-Information: Gvt Websites offer to citizens policies and programme documents; budgets; laws and regulations; briefs on key issues of public interest. Tools for dissemination of information exist for timely access and use of public information, including web fora, email lists, news-groups and chat rooms. 2.e-Consultation: Gvt Websites explain e-Consultation mechanisms and tools. They also offer a choice of public policy topics on line for discussion, with a real-time and archived access to audios and videos of public meetings. The Gvt encourages citizens to participate in discussions. 3.e-Decision-Making: Gvt indicates it will take citizen input into decision-making and provides actual feed-back on the outcome of specific issues. (UN e-government Global Survey 2003), www.unpan.orgwww.unpan.org
Results of the UN Global e-Government Survey 2003 The UN Global e-government Survey 2003, presented to the 5th Global Forum on Reinventing Government (Mexico City, 3-7 November 2003) addressed three main conclusions: 1.No country or group of countries in the world owns the monopoly on imagination, wisdom and committment or political will for use e-government for the delivery of the public value of human development. Original, advanced content of e-government applications finds a home in the geographic and developmental South, as it does in the North. 2.Only a very few Governments have opted to use e-government applications for transactional services or for networking. 3.Even fewer Governments use it to support the genuine participation of citizens in politics. Those who do, in most cases, aplly it at a very rudimentary level. (UN e-government Global Survey 2003, www.unpan.org)www.unpan.org
Why (and How) introducing ICT in Government ? Guiding Principles for Successful e-Government Compelling reasons for the Government to use ICT in its operations and to go on line (Priority needs that require Government involvement; Efficiency and effectiveness as key success criteria for government involvement). Ability of the Government to use ICT in its operations: to go and stay on line (Availability of -initial- funding; Skills and Culture of the Civil Service; Co-ordination; Legal framework; ICT infrastructure; Political Leadership and long-term political committment; Public engagement; Plans for development of human capital and technical infrastructure; Partnerships; Monitoring and Evaluation).
Compelling reasons for the users of e-government to go and stay on line: Perception of added value; Access and Skills; Privacy and Security. U.N. World Public Sector Report 2003: e-government at the Crossroads, www.unpan.orgwww.unpan.org Why (and How) introducing ICT in Government ? Guiding Principles for Successful e-Government (cont’d)
Why introducing ICT in Government, in Africa ? The advent of Information Society is creating unprecedented conditions for bridging the digital divide through supporting government operations to strengthen the establishment of efficient, effective and transparent governance systems. Electronic tools can significantly improve the services and information flows from administrations to their constituencies. Communication among administrations and citizens and businesses can be enhanced and, at the same time, ICTs offer unique opportunities for the re-use and exploitation of public sector information within the emerging digital economy. Bringing out this potential will create vast economic opportunities for developing countries.
e-Governance in Africa: Justification The introduction of digital, knowledge-based economy in Africa would be a powerful engine for growth, competitiveness and jobs, while at the same time improving citizens’ quality of life. The enhancement and/or building of the capacity of public bodies and government agencies in the use of e-government applications, promoting at the same time the accessibility of businesses and citizens to internet and government services on line (what can be called the e-governance capacity), will improve knowledge through information availability, and contributing to overcoming bureaucratic contradictions within government.
e-Governance in Africa: Context The scenario for integrating ICTs in Africa’s governance is difficult and there are a number of technological and human barriers that threaten the exploitation of ICTs. A number of initiatives and projects on ICT development in Africa are already under way. Many of the projects on ICT development led by national, regional and international organizations focus on financing technological infrastructure and providing assistance oriented to lower tariffs. New approaches aim to incorporate socio-cultural dimensions “placing the citizen at the centre of development objectives”.
e-Governance in Africa: Challenges Leadership –Clear e-Vision –Capacity and will to lead change –Management and accountability structures People –Appropriate skills and attitudes available at all levels –Availability of training programmes –Entrenching a culture of increased information access and transparency –Commitment to high level team work –Support for public service wide collaboration –Change management initiatives
e-Governance in Africa: Challenges (cont’d) Policy –Liberalised telecommunications sector and effective regulation –Policy environment supportive of growth of ICT adoption and use –Policy frameworks that secure freedom of information, privacy, security, intellectual property and copyright –Arresting the “brain drain” Processes –Identification of critical processes as well as improvement –Process adaptable, integrated and open to innovation –Monitoring and evaluation –Identification and adoption of best practices
e-Governance in Africa: Challenges (cont’d) Technology –Access to ICT networks, services and equipment –Development of local content in local languages –Ensuring that programmes drive ICT –Standard approaches to ICT infrastructure, to ensure scalability and interoperability –Privacy and data sharing –Authentication –Building user trust Stakeholders –Support for the need for”e” –Ownership across the board
e-Governance in Africa: Challenges (cont’d) Access –Making information widely available to citizens –Kiosks –Call centres –Consideration of people with disabilities –Utilising a variety of channels, including those owned and managed by the commercial and voluntary sectors –PCs, interactive TV, cell phones, telephones/letters –Ensuring that any new channels live up to high consistent standards of trust, confidentiality, security an accountability (NEPAD e-Africa Commission www.nepad.org )www.nepad.org
Some concrete initiatives on Building e-Governance Capacity in Africa 1.United Nations Online Network in Public Administration and Finance - UNPAN 2.e-Africa Initiative for Good Governance; 3.Digital Governance.org Initiative; 4.Innovation in the Public Administration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region (InnovMed).
UNPAN: Mission To promote the sharing of knowledge, experiences and best practices throughout the world in sound public policies, effective public administration systems and efficient civil services, through capacity-building and cooperation among Member States to bridge the digital divide, with emphasis on South-South cooperation and commitment to integrity and excellence: www.unpan.orgwww.unpan.org
UNPAN-CAFRAD Since 2000, CAFRAD is one of the African On-line Regional Centres of the United Nations On-line Network in Public Administration and Finance - UNPAN (www.unpan.org/africa.asp - www.cafrad.org )www.unpan.org/africa.aspwww.cafrad.org In the framework of UNPAN, CAFRAD acts as regional focal point on e-Information Management, promoting the sharing of knowledge, experiences and best practices throughout Africa and supporting capacity-building and partnerships among the Member States.
Membership Morocco MauritaniaMali Niger Senegal The Gambia Tchad Sudan Nigeria Burkina Faso Guinea Bissau Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia Cote d’Ivoire Ghana Togo Benin Sao Tome & Principe Congo Gabon Cameroon Central African Republic Democratic Republic of Congo Somalia Djibouti Madagascar South Africa Namibia Angola Swaziland Burundi Uganda Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Tanzania ZambiaMozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Botswana Rwanda Mauritius Comores Cap Vert Lesotho Seychelles Equatorial Guinea Algeria Tunisia Libya CAFRAD
Implementation of UNPAN in Africa The expansion of UNPAN to sub-regional and national levels, as mandated by the General Assembly of UN to DPADM/DESA, and involving Governments and other African ORCs and sub-regional institutions, will play a pivotal role in enhancing governance capacity in African countries, in consistency with the framework of the Macro Plan of NEPAD.
e-Africa Initiative for Good Governance: Background and Justification In 2002 CAFRAD launched the “e-Africa initiative” with the aim to raise awareness on the role that ICT can play in the development process. The “e-Africa initiative” focuses on drawing on the strengths in both good governance and ICT and wishes to provide an important contribution to the success of NEPAD’s overall vision on Africa’s development.
e-Africa Initiative for Good Governance: Start-up and Implementation Activities e-Africa 2002: Regional Workshop on building e-governance capacity in Africa, (Johannesburg, South Africa 28-31 October 2002 www.e-africa.org.za) organised by CAFRAD in partnership with UNDESA, and under the banner of NEPAD, served as “Kick-off” meeting for the initiative: a “Framework for Action” for its implementation was agreed by the partner initiators of the conference.www.e-africa.org.za e-Africa 2003: Experts Consultative Meeting on building e- governance capacity in Africa, (Tangier, Morocco, 20-22 October 2003, www.cafrad.org ) organised by CAFRAD in partnership with UNDESA and NEPAD, served to finalise the e- Africa Plan of Action and the strategy for its implementation.www.cafrad.org
e-Africa Initiative for Good Governance: Political Committment and Institutional Framework Meeting of Ministers of Public Service, 1 st November 2002, Johannesburg: approval of the e-Africa Framework for Action; 4 th Global Forum on Reinventing Government, 10-13 December 2002, Marrakech: presentation of the e-Africa Initiative; 4 th Pan African Conference of Ministers of Public Service, 4-7 May 2003, Cape Town: approval of the Pan African Programme on Governance and Public Administration; Meeting of the Pan African Committee of Ministers of Public Service, 28 January 2004, Kampala, alongside the Workshop on Public Sector Leadership Capacity Development for Good Governance: presentation of the e-Africa Plan of Action.
e-Africa Framework 4 Action: Vision Inclusive and participatory African systems of good governance that are capable of exercising their powers and functions, delivering public goods and services efficiently and effectively in a transparent and accountable manner using ICT’s, to reduce poverty, redress inequality, promote sustainable development, foster security and fulfill social, economic, cultural, civic and political rights.
e-Africa Framework 4 Action: Mission Strengthen the institutional capacity of the African governance system, especially that of regional, central and local government institutions, to improve policy making, coordination and delivery of public goods and services using ICT’s, in partnership with all stakeholders, complying to high standards of integrity, efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability, and responding to the needs expressed by their constituencies.
e-Africa Framework 4 Action: Strategic Goals 1.Government as a catalytic force of social and economic development, empowering its institutions through the use of ICT to work together with civil society and private sector to meet the needs expressed by their constituencies. 2.Accountable, efficient and effective processes for performing government administration, reducing transaction costs and enhancing policy coordination between the different government entities. 3.Effective delivery of public services through efficient administrative and financial systems, ensuring quality, accessibility, affordability and sustainability.
e-Africa Framework 4 Action: Strategic Goals (cont’d) 4.Increased capacity of Government to engage in participatory and consultative decision-making processes with individuals, communities and organizations, by simplifying and increasing the interaction and transaction through the provision of on-line services and channels of participation. 5.Reduce the space and time constraints between providers of public services and goods and those that make use of these through application of ICT.
e-Africa Framework 4 Action: Strategic Areas of Support 1.e-Readiness 2.Enabling environment 3.Public participation and private sector engagement 4.Institutional capacity building 5.Monitoring, learning and knowledge management
e-Africa Plan of Action Outlines the set of realistic activities that can produce positive impact on political, economic and social governance in Africa, as specified in the “Framework for Action”, and in pursuit of NEPAD priority programs; it is guided by the following strategic principles: a)Unleash the creativity of the African people and improve their living standards and choices; b)Meet national needs, as expressed by key stakeholders (national governments, citizens, civil society and business organizations); c)Support broader public sector reform and development; d)Give new impetus to the democratisation process and good governance; e)Promote a peaceful and globally competitive Africa; f)Globally promote Africa’s excellence and achievements.
e-Africa Plan of Action: Immediate Actions 1.e-Africa Portal (at UNPAN-CAFRAD) 2.Communication Campaign 3.Capacity building 4.Knowledge-Sharing mechanisms 5.Promotion of bilateral and multilateral joint e-government projects.
e-Africa Plan of Action: Medium-Term Actions – National level 1.Assessment of community demand for e-government and, on this basis, identify and select priority programs for implementation; 2.Assessment of ICT capacity development needs; 3.Establish an e-government-enabled national and local-level networks of stakeholders; 4.Promote public dialogue and democratic governance; 5.Empower people by promoting and protecting their right to self- expression; 6.Promote, protect and enhance human and cultural priorities; 7.Introduce e-governance programs based on agreed national priority areas, using a phased approach; 8.National surveys of public goods and services; 9.Mechanisms for maximum dissemination and access; 10.Policy and Legal Framework; 11.Monitoring and Evaluation.
e-Africa Plan of Action: Medium-Term Actions Regional and sub-regional level 1.Ministerial Committee for e-Africa; 2.e-Africa Award Program; 3.ICT Technical Assistance and Monitoring Unit; 4.Sub-regional and regional e-government observatories. All this, in consistency with the implementation of the NEPAD PA&G Programme, under which CAFRAD has to take lead in three pivotal areas, namely: 1.e-Governance; 2.Leadership Capacity Development in Public Sector; 3.Policy and Knowledge Exchange and Management.
Administrative Reforms and e-governemnt Fully understanding the nature of ICT as a tool that can facilitate the desired change and transformation in governance, but by itself, cannot bring it about, the e-Africa Plan of Action calls on the African governments to continue their efforts aimed at: 1.Development of a master plan for modernization of public administration, especially with the view to simplify administrative procedures; to make it results-oriented; to improve women participation and status in the public service; and, to promote professionalism and ethics in civil service within the framework of the African Charter of Public Service; 2.Broadening of the social base for public policy decision making; 3.Demonstration of clear-cut commitment to the use of ICT in government operations; 4.Introduction of systems for evaluation and quality control of public services.
Building Indigenous African ICT Industry and Capability The long-term success of the e-Africa Plan of Action will depend on effectiveness of government efforts to: 1.Build and standardize a robust and upgradeable ICT infrastructure; 2.Promote development of indigenous ICT industry, including a system of incentives; 3.Support local innovation, R&D, software and content development; 4.Employ African entrepreneurs and enterprises as preferred contractors for design, building, production and delivery of outsourced public services; 5.Encourage creation and support of ICT professional associations; 6.Promote export of African e-government expertise.
Digital Governance.org Initiative Recently it has been launched the DigitalGovernance.org Initiative which encourage a global, virtual community of people engaged in, or interested in e-governance applications in developing countries: www.digitalgovernance.orgwww.digitalgovernance.org To encourage national-level knowledge exchange and mentoring in setting-up or supporting e-governance projects, DigitalGovernance.org has initiated country-specific virtual networks. The country-level networks would primarily deal with issues and learnings that are relevant to their specific countries. CAFRAD, considering its leading role in e-governance within the NEPAD Programme, is considering the possibility to support the establishment and coordination of the National Digital Governance Network in a number of selected African countries.
Digital Governance Models Based on primary experimentation and secondary research, some generic Digital Governance models which are being practiced in developing countries have been identified. All these models benefit from the intrinsic characteristics of ICTs, which are: a) Enabling equal access to information to anyone who is a linked to the digital network, and b) De-concentration of information across the entire digital network. The five Generic Models are: 1.Broadcasting / Wider-Dissemination Model 2.Critical Flow Model 3.Comparative Analysis Model 4.e-Advocacy/Lobbying and Pressure Group Model; 5.Interactive-Service Model.
Innovation in Public Administration in the Euro- Mediterranean Region: Innov-Med The objective of the Programme is to contribute, through the exchange of innovative ideas and experiences in public administration, to the improvement of governance systems in the countries of the Euro-Mediterranean area with a view to enhancing prosperity, peace and stability in the region. The Project also intends to promote the progressive harmonisation of public administration systems in the Mediterranean area in line with the Barcelona process established in 1995 as a means through which the European Union supports Mediterranean partners in their political, economic and social reforms.
Innovation in Public Administration in the Euro- Mediterranean Region: Innov-Med (cont’d) The Programme is executed by DPADM/UNDESA with the support of FORMEZ – Italian Study and Training Centre, and financed by the Government of Italy. For more information, visit: www.unpan.org/innovmedwww.unpan.org/innovmed CAFRAD is acting as Focal Point for North Africa and is undertaking the First Phase Activity of Assessment of the state of public administration in Morocco.
Conclusions: Despite the many indicators showing Africa at a disadvantage, the potential for growth through integrating ICTs in the governance systems are encouraging. In particular, the key issue is how to build capacity to move towards an African knowledge-based society that will allow the enhancement of the economic performance of governments and public sector. African countries can enormously benefit of the use of ICTs for its effective development. In addition to a faster management and analysis of the execution of decisions, ICTs can especially support, at best, how each public administration intends to implement its activities, in relation to budget allocation, and how it thinks it ought to manage performance.
“……let us resolve to bridge the Digital Divide between countries, between rural and urban areas, between educated and illiterate populations, and between men and women. And let us act urgently so that all the world’s people can benefit from the potential of the ICT revolution…….” U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan on the 2002 “World Telecommunication Day” www.itu.int/newsroom/wtd/2002 Conclusions:
For more information: www.cafrad.org www.unpan.org/africa.asp Gianluca Misuraca firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com