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NOMBRE DEL PONENTE. Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from.

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Presentation on theme: "NOMBRE DEL PONENTE. Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from."— Presentation transcript:

1 NOMBRE DEL PONENTE

2 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe Cohesion Ideology and its Focus of Supreme Loyalty (The West) REPRESENTED BY The Church (Clergy/ Aristocracy) Parliament (Bourgeoisie) Communist Party (Nomenklatura)? FOCUS OF SUPREME LOYALTY GodNationLabor? COHESION IDEOLOGY ReligionNationalism Proletarian Internationalism ? MARKETPLACE (“MOTHERLAND”) ManorIndependent National State Proletarian State The Globe MODE OF PRODUCTION Feudalism(National) Capitalism Communism International Capitalism (Globalisation) Phase 1  2  2a  3

3 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe Religion (and Nationalism) and Human Rights Identity Former ( of the Majority )  Difference creator  Conflict generator  Violator of Human Rights (of the Minority)

4 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe The 1923 Exchangeables: Greek Orthodox and Muslims (“Turco Sporos”; “Half Infidel”) Bulgaria after 1984: changing the names of the Muslims (Turks, Pomaks, Roma) Yugoslavia in the 1990s: Western Rome – Eastern Rome; The Orthodox, Catholic, Muslim divide Greece and Turkey: “Orthodox” for Greeks and “Muslim” for Turks is a sine qua non - A perfect “History and Religion” formula. History and Religion in SE Europe: The overall picture

5 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe Official minorities: Muslims, Jews, Catholics. Vlachs & Macedonians (both Orthodox) are not considered minority Denial of ethnic identity and closure of associations (ongoing) Forbidden Zone in the Rodopi Mountains “No-return” passports for analphabetics Pomak children educated in Tessaloniki Special Pedagogy Academy as Turkish teachers (the Turkish-Pomak divide?) (ongoing) School books, newspapers, radio & TV broadcasts from Turkey prohobited Attacks Greek State vs. Muslim-Turkish Minority

6 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe Expulsion from Greek citizenship (Art. 19) (partly ongoing) Election threshhold for independent candidates also (ongoing) Licences not delivered: professional; building & repair; tractor driving; hunting; business University diplomas from Turkey not recognized Lands confiscated: anadazmos, expropriations, non recognition of title-deeds, prohibition to buy; but soft-loans for Orthodox buyers Muslim religious, community, and foundation leaders appointed by the Greek State (ongoing). Greek State vs. Muslim-Turkish Minority (cont.)

7 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe The Alevis: pogroms ( ); denial of public funds; religion lessons; ban on associations (ongoing) Oppression & discriminations to non-Muslims: travel permits ( ); “Citizen Speak Turkish” campaigns (1930s, 1960s) 1927 Rights of the two islands under Lausanne Art. 14 violated (education and administration) 1934 Thrace incidents 1941 Labour Battalions 1942 Wealth Tax (10 times, no judicial recourse, work camps) Foreigners’ Book September 1955 Pogrom 1964 Expulsion of Greek passport holder Rums Law 625/1965 Art. 24/2: “Turkish citizen of Turkish origin” (ongoing) Turkish State vs. Non-Muslim Minorities

8 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe Closure of Phanar’s Halki Seminar (1971; “private uni.”, Law 625 Art. 3) (ongoing) : non-Muslims students forced into Islam lessons : “Domestic Foreigners (Turkish citizens)” cited as potential saboteurs Investigation on house buys in Phanar (1993) (Sevres Paranoia) Administrative Court: “Foreign subject Turkish citizen” (1996) State Supervisory Council report: “Foreign Legal Persons” (2006) : The “1936 Declaration” (ongoing). Turkish State vs. Non-Muslim Minorities (cont.)

9 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe The property lists of 1936 in the 1970s: the vakifname question Court of Cassation in 1971: “Non-Turkish legal person” : 3rd, 4th, 6th EU Harmonization Packages: stop violation, return the immovables, register the un-registered. The 2006 Law –Property seized and transferred to Treasury or GDF: Restitution without court order? –Property seized and sold to third parties: no solution –Property possessed by Foundations but not registered to their names: very slow (27.6 per cent in 3 years) President of the Republic’s veto: “too much pol. and eco. power” ECHR decision of January 2007: Euros; waiting. The “1936 Declaration”

10 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe General –The old superstructure continues to be effective –The new superstructure adopts certain aspects of the old –If the Religion of the minority/invaded is different, Religion backs up national identity/Nationalism –Religion is the CI of lesser industrialized countries Area-specific –Bourgeoisie and secularisation: W.Europe-SE Europe –Communism: coalition against the common enemy –“We” and “They” at an interval of 100 years –“National Church” and the “Ghaza” –Religious homogeneity required by the Nation-state (definition) –The everlasting Millet System. The force of Religion in the Nationalist era – Why?

11 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe The Dominant Nation (Muslims) and the Dominated Nations (non- Muslims) Dominated Nations: Second class but autonomous Could not survive the advent of Nationalism, thus formally abolished in 1839: “All subjects are equal under law”. But cloned itself in treaties: –Lausanne Arts and 45 (Turkey) –Art. 45 (Greece) …and minds The Millet System of 1454 in the 21st century

12 Los programas de desarrollo solidario Baskin Oran Religious Differences and Human Rights: Historical and Current Experiences from South East Europe SE Europe: “History and Religion” instead of “History and Language”: The very Millet System itself as the main source of national identities/ human rights violations The reciprocal sine qua nons for national identities: Orthodoxy and Islam Worse still: Autonomy replaced by “Traitor” as a result of the “steamroller effect” of the Nation-state The might of the Dominant Nation mentality effecting the Dominated: “We are essential & constituent element” (vs. secondary & despised) Prolongations of the Millet System: Now the MS englobes not only SE Europe but the Western world, where the Muslims became the new Jews and where the Dominant & Dominated nations switched places between non-Muslims & Muslims Conclusions


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