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The Optical Fiber and Light Wave Propagation Xavier Fernando Ryerson Comm. Lab

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The Optical Fiber Fiber optic cable functions as a ”light guide,” guiding the light from one end to the other end. Fiber categories based on propagation: –Single Mode Fiber (SMF) –Multimode Fiber (MMF) Categories based on refractive index profile –Step Index Fiber (SIF) –Graded Index Fiber (GIF)

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Step Index Fiber Uniform ref. index of n 1 (1.44 < n 1 < 1.46) within the core and a lower ref. index n 2 in the cladding. The core and cladding radii are a and b. Typically 2a/2b are 8/125, 50/125, 62.5/125, 85/125, or 100/140 µm. SIF is generally made by doping high-purity fused silica glass (SiO 2 ) with different concentrations of materials like titanium, germanium, or boron. n1n1 n2n2 n1>n2n1>n2

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Different Light Wave Theories Different theories explain light behaviour We will first use ray theory to understand light propagation in multimode fibres Then use electromagnetic wave theory to understand propagation in single mode fibres Quantum theory is useful to learn photo detection and emission phenomena

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Refraction and Reflection Snell’s Law: n 1 Sin Φ 1 = n 2 Sin Φ 2 When Φ 2 = 90, Φ 1 = Φc is the Critical Angle Φc=Sin -1 (n 2 /n 1 )

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Step Index Multimode Fiber Fractional refractive-index profile

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Ray description of different fibers

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Single Mode Step Index Fiber Only one propagation mode is allowed in a given wavelength. This is achieved by very small core diameter (8-10 µm) SMF offers highest bit rate, most widely used in telecom

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Step Index Multimode Fiber Guided light propagation can be explained by ray optics When the incident angle is smaller the acceptance angle, light will propagate via TIR Large number of modes possible Each mode travels at a different velocity Modal Dispersion Used in short links, mostly with LED sources

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Graded Index Multimode Fiber Core refractive index gradually changes towards the cladding The light ray gradually bends and the TIR happens at different points The rays that travel longer distance also travel faster Offer less modal dispersion compared to Step Index MMF

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Refractive Index Profile of Step and Graded Index Fibers ab n1n1 n2n2 n2n2 n1n1 ab n = Step Graded

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Step and Graded Index Fibers

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Total Internal Reflection in Graded Index Fiber

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Total Internal Reflection in Graded Index Fiber - II

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Skew Rays

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Maxwell’s Equations ……..(1) (Faraday’s Law) E: Electric Field ……….(2) (Maxwell’s Faraday equation) H: Magnetic Field ……….(3) (Gauss Law) ……….(4) (Gauss Law for magnetism) Taking the curl of (1) and using and The parameter ε is permittivity and μ is permeability. …….(5) In a linear isotropic dielectric material with no currents and free of charges,

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Maxwell’s Equations But from the vector identity ……(6) Using (5) and (3), …….(7) Similarly taking the curl of (2), it can be shown ………(8) (7) and (8) are standard wave equations. Note the Laplacian operation is,

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Maxwell’s Equation Electrical and magnetic vectors in cylindrical coordinates are give by,.…..(9) ……(10) Substituting (9) and (10) in Maxwell’s curl equations ….(11) ….(12) ….(13)

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Maxwell’s Equation Also (14) (15) (16) By eliminating variables, above can be rewritten such that when E z and H z are known, the remaining transverse components E r, E φ, H r, H φ, can be determined from (17) to (20).

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Maxwell’s Equation …………..(17) …………..(18) … (19).………… (20) Substituting (19) and (20) into (16) results in ….…(21) …….(22)

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Electric and Magnetic Modes Note (21) and (22) each contain either E z or H z only. This may imply E z and H z are uncoupled. However. Coupling between E z and H z is required by the boundary conditions. If boundary conditions do not lead to coupling between field components, mode solution will imply either E z =0 or H z =0. This is what happens in metallic waveguides. When E z =0, modes are called transverse electric or TE modes When H z =0, modes are called transverse magnetic or TM modes However, in optical fiber hybrid modes also will exist (both E z and H z are nonzero). These modes are designated as HE or EH modes, depending on either H or E component is larger.

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Wave Equations for Step Index Fibers Using separation of variables ………..(23) The time and z-dependent factors are given by ………..(24) Circular symmetry requires, each field component must not change when Ø is increased by 2п. Thus …………(25) Where υ is an integer. Therefore, (21) becomes ….(26)

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Wave Equations for Step Index Fibers Solving (26). For the fiber core region, the solution must remain finite as r 0, whereas in cladding, the solution must decay to zero as r ∞ Hence, the solutions are –In the core, (r < a), Where, J v is the Bessel function of first kind of order v –In the cladding, (r > a), Where, K v is the modified Bessel functions of second kind

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Bessel Functions First KindBessel Functions Second kind Modified Bessel first kind Modified Bessel Second kind

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Propagation Constant β From definition of modified Bessel function Since Kv(wr) must go to zero as r ∞, w>0. This implies that A second condition can be deduced from behavior of Jv(ur). Inside core u is real for F 1 to be real, thus, Hence, permissible range of β for bound solutions is

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Meaning of u and w Both u and w describes guided wave variation in radial direction –u is known as guided wave radial direction phase constant (J n resembles sine function) –w is known as guided wave radial direction decay constant (recall K n resemble exponential function) Inside the core, we can write, Outside the core, we can write,

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V-Number (Normalized Frequency) All but HE 11 mode will cut off when b = 0. Hence, for single mode condition, Define the V-Number (Normalized Frequency) as, Define the normalized propagation const b as,

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Field Distribution in the SMF

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Mode-field Diameter (2W 0 ) In a Single Mode Fiber, At r = w o, E(W o )=E o /e Typically W o > a

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Cladding Power Vs Normalized Frequency V c = 2.4 Modes

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Power in the cladding Lower order modes have higher power in the cladding larger MFD

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Higher the Wavelength More the Evanescent Field

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Light Intensity

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Fiber Key Parameters

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Effects of Dispersion and Attenuation

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Dispersion for Digital Signals

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Modal Dispersion

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Major Dispersions in Fiber Modal Dispersion: Different modes travel at different velocities, exist only in multimode fibers This was the major problem in first generation systems Modal dispersion was alleviated with single mode fiber –Still the problem was not fully solved

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Dispersion in SMF Material Dispersion: Since n is a function of wavelength, different wavelengths travel at slightly different velocities. This exists in both multimode and single mode fibers. Waveguide Dispersion: Signal in the cladding travels with a different velocity than the signal in the core. This phenomenon is significant in single mode conditions. Group Velocity (Chromatic) Dispersion = Material Disp. + Waveguide Disp.

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Group Velocity Dispersion

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Modifying Chromatic Dispersion GVD = Material Disp. + Waveguide dispersion Material dispersion depends on the material properties and difficult to alter Waveguide dispersion depends on fiber dimensions and refractive index profile. These can be altered to get: –1300 nm optimized fiber –Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF) –Dispersion Flattened Fiber (DFF)

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Material and Waveguide Dispersions

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Different WG Dispersion Profiles WGD is changed by adjusting fiber profile

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Dispersion Shifting/Flattening (Standard) (Zero Disp. At 1550 nm) (Low Dispersion throughout)

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Specialty Fibers with Different Index Profiles 1300 nm optimized Dispersion Shifted

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Specialty Fibers with Different Index Profiles Dispersion Flattened Large area dispersion shiftedLarge area dispersion flattened

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Polarization Mode Dispersion Since optical fiber has a single axis of anisotropy, differently polarized light travels at slightly different velocity This results in Polarization Mode Dispersion PMD is usually small, compared to GVD or Modal dispersion May become significant if all other dispersion mechanisms are small

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X and Y Polarizations A Linear Polarized wave will always have two orthogonal components. These can be called x and y polarization components Each component can be individually handled if polarization sensitive components are used

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Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Each polarization state has a different velocity PMD

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Birefringence Birefringence is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays types of (anisotropic) material In optical fibers, birefringence can be understood by assigning two different refractive indices n x and n y to the material for different polarizations. In optical fiber, birefringence happens due to the asymmetry in the fiber core and due to external stresses There are Hi-Bi, Low-Bi and polarization maintaining fibers.

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Total Dispersion For Multi Mode Fibers: For Single Mode Fibers: But Group Velocity Disp. Hence, (ΔT pol is usually negligible ) (Note for MMF ΔT GVD ~= ΔT mat

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Permissible Bit Rate As a rule of thumb the permissible total dispersion can be up to 70% of the bit period. Therefore,

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Disp. & Attenuation Summary

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Fiber Optic Link is a Low Pass Filter for Analog Signals

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Attenuation Vs Frequency Fiber attenuation does not depend on modulation frequency

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Attenuation in Fiber Attenuation Coefficient Silica has lowest attenuation at 1550 nm Water molecules resonate and give high attenuation around 1400 nm in standard fibers Attenuation happens because: –Absorption (extrinsic and intrinsic) –Scattering losses (Rayleigh, Raman and Brillouin…) –Bending losses (macro and micro bending)

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All Wave Fiber for DWDM Lowest attenuation occurs at 1550 nm for Silica

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Attenuation characteristics

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Bending Loss Note: Higher MFD Higher Bending Loss

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Micro-bending losses

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Fiber Production The Fiber Cable

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