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COMPUTER AUDIO CGDD 4003 What is Sound?  Compressions of air or other media (such as water or metal) from something vibrating  Sounds are made up of.

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Presentation on theme: "COMPUTER AUDIO CGDD 4003 What is Sound?  Compressions of air or other media (such as water or metal) from something vibrating  Sounds are made up of."— Presentation transcript:



3 What is Sound?  Compressions of air or other media (such as water or metal) from something vibrating  Sounds are made up of high frequency and low frequency sounds  Don’t confuse pitch (frequency) with volume!  Volume is measured in decibels (dB)  Frequency in Hertz (Hz) = cycles per second  Humans only hear from 20Hz to 20KHz Frequency Strange Fact! Speed of sound (Air: 340m/s; Water:1,230 m/s; Gold: 3,240m/s):

4 Spatial Sound  1 Channel – “mono”. Can be split to several speakers; still no direction  2 Channels – “stereo”. Fades from left to right. Can determine direction  5.1 Audio – Common for home theaters  3D Sound? – Video games (PC). Still has time to develop

5 The Human Side (20Hz-20KHz)

6 The Equal Loudness Contour Killa Hurts Ouch!

7 A Note about decibels  A decibel is 1/10 th of a bel  Abbreviated dB  This is the perceived loudness, which increases linearly as power increases exponentially  Something sounds twice as loud?  10·log 10 (2) = 3.01dB  In gaming, volume usually ranges 0.0f-1.0f

8 Human Perception (InterAural Time Difference)  Sound hits both ears  Difference in time Hits Right Ear First Hasn’t gotten to left yet

9 How Computers Perceive Sound  Digitization (DAC and ADC)  Computers “listen” to the amplitude a certain number of times per second (sample rate)  44K is CD  22K is good  8K is lame  Computers have to approximate what they heard and assign it a number  4 bits = 16 level to approximate to  16 bits = 2 million levels to approximate to

10 Original Sound Amplitude (in dB)Frequency

11 Low Sampling Rate TIME

12 Low Sampling Rate What the computer hears TIME

13 High Sampling Rate TIME

14 High Sampling Rate TIME

15 2 bits per sample 4 Approximations TIME

16 StairStep Effect TIME Called “quantization errors”

17 3 bits per sample 8 Approximations TIME

18 Less StairStep TIME

19 Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)  Represents the quanitization error  8-bits = 128 discrete values (upper-half only)  Sample is rounded up or down  SNR is 256:1  256:1 translates to 48dB (difference in average noise to max signal)  16-bit = 32K discrete values (upper-half)  SNR = 65,536:1, or 96dB

20 In General  Sampling rate affects range of frequencies you can capture (Nyquist)  Bits per sample affects noise level as well as volume range  What about recording:  Rock?  Mozart (or anything on NPR for that matter)?  Voice/dialog?

21 Capturing Sounds  Usually done with:  a microphone (such as voice)  Line in  CD  Hollywood Edge®  Computer has sound card  Input types (RCA, MIDI, mini, ¼”, XLR)  Card has quality (plays 16-bit sound)  Need some kind of software  SoundForge/Audacity  Windows SoundRecorder (gag)

22 Typical Pipeline Permanent Storage Decoding (from mp3, ogg, etc) Memory Buffer Sound Channel Processing (2D/3D effects) Hardware mixing and DAC Individual Channel

23 Sample Playback  Playback  Loaded entirely into memory (called “sample” as well)  Streamed (pre-buffer data using a circular buffer)  Channel properties  Pan – left/right  Pitch – frequency  Volume

24 Compressed Audio  Requires a codec (compress/decompress)  Lossless ( files)  Lossy  Bit-reduction (ADPCM, reduces bps from 16 to 4) Simple Used on Sony PSP, Wii and Nintendo DS  Physcho-acoustics (.mp3,.ogg,.wma) Discard sound we don’t normally hear anyway Hard to implement CPU intensive PS3, Xbox 360, PCs Note: mp3 format requires licensing fees to Franhofer-Thompson!

25 ADSR Envelopes  Used for defining the volume of a sound Attack Decay Sustain Release Time Volume

26 3D Sound  Don’t have 5.1?  Panning is one option  Psycho-acoustic options  Head-Relative Transfer Function (HRTF)  Tweak the frequencies to match your ears  Sounds have position and velocity  There is a listener component (like a camera)  Relationship between the two  Attenuation (with distance)  Occlusion (low-pass filter)  Doppler (relative velocities)

27 3D Sound  Environmental effects  Reverb (depends on materials in room)  Echo (depends on size of room)  Occlusion (a wall blocking part of the sound)  Obstruction (no direct path to the listener  Competing reverb technologies  I3DL2 (Interactive 3D Audio Rendering Level 2)  EAX (Creative Labs)  Almost identical

28 MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)  MIDI – a method for representing sounds electronically  Became popular in the 80’s  Send 16 different channels (tracks) at one time  Have a total of 128 possible instruments

29 The Keyboard  The MIDI Keyboard  No audible sounds  Generates a series of 1’s a 0’s (on/off)  Signals represent  Note, loudness  Length, type of instrument…  Signals come out of the keyboard and usually go into a sequencer

30 The Sequencer  Can be a PC  Responsible for recording individual tracks of music  Responsible for playback  Receives input from keyboard  Sends output to synthesizer

31 The Synthesizer  Receives 1’s and 0’s from the sequencer  Interprets the 1’s and 0’s to produce audible sounds  Piano  Drums…  Saxophone…  Sounds are sent to speakers

32 Speakers  Like you haven’t seen these before…

33 MIDI 01101101000110 010010

34 MIDI vs Digital Recording  MIDI:  Smaller file size (like 10-20K)  Change keys/tempo/looping on the fly!  Song sounds different on every sound card  No singing allowed!  Also a DLS format (DownLoadable Sound)  Digital Recording:  Larger file size (like 5M)  Sound is close approximation to real thing

35 Sampling  There are two main approaches to synthesis:  Sampling  FM Synthesis  Sampling  A sample is a recording of actual instrument/sound  Samples are taken at certain intervals  Samples are then shifted up or down depending on the note

36 Sampling

37 FM Synthesis  Basic waves:  Sine  Square  Saw  Triangle  Noise

38 FM Synthesis  Start with basic waveform, and have one wave modulate the other  Here’s volume modulation  440 sine wave, control 2Hz:  440 sine wave, control 880Hz:  440 sine wave, control 3KHz:

39 Interactive Music  Music adapts based on current state of game  Music broken into chunks  Called segments (or cues)  Can be played back to back  Can be smoothly cross-faded  Segments are combined into themes  fmod’s Sound Designer can do this

40 Themes in fmod

41 Sound Variations  Sounds can be triggered by events  There’s no reason to play the same sound the same way  Pick a random sample  Change pitch  Change attenuation

42 Other technology  Lip-synch  Use the amplitude of the wave to control mouth  Analyze phonemes of sample (language neutral)

43 Common Audio Technology  XAudio (free) – cross-platform  OpenAL (free) – cross-platform  XACT (free) – Xbox/Windows  fmod (commercial) – cross-platform

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