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Calculus II Ch 7 Section 2 Integrating Trig Functions with Powers David Dippel LoneStar College - Montgomery

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7.2 Trigonometric Integrals In this section, we introduce techniques for evaluating integrals of the form where either m or n is a nonnegative integer

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Integrals Involving Sine and Cosine A. 1.If the power of the sine is odd and positive, save one sine factor and convert the remaining factors to cosine. Then, expand and integrate. odd convert to cosinesave for du

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2.If the power of the cosine is odd and positive, save one cosine factor and convert the remaining factors to sine. Then, expand and integrate. odd convert to sinesave for du 3.If the powers of both the sine and cosine are even and nonnegative, make repeated use of the identities to convert the integrand to odd powers of the cosine. Then, proceed as in case 2. It is sometimes helpful to use the identity and

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Examples: Integrals Involving Sine and Cosine Evaluate the integral. 1) 2)

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3)

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Integrals Involving Secants and Tangents B. 1.If the power of the tangent is odd and positive, save a secant-tangent factor and convert the remaining factors to secants. Then, expand and integrate. odd convert to secantssave for du

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2.If the power of the secant is even and positive, save a secant squared factor and convert the remaining factors to tangents. Then, expand and integrate. even convert to tangentssave for du 3.If there are no secant factors and the power of the tangent is even and positive, convert a tangent squared factor to secants; then expand and repeat if necessary. convert to secants

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4. If the integral is of the form where n is odd and positive, possibly use integration by parts. 5. If none of the first four cases apply, try converting to sines and cosines.

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Examples: Integrals Involving Secants and Tangents 1) 2) Power Rule

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3) 4)

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Integrals Involving Cotangent and Cosecant NOTE: The guidelines for integrals involving cotangent and cosecant would be similar to that of integrals involving tangent and secant.

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4.2 Trigonometric Functions (part 2) III. Trigonometric Functions. A) Basic trig functions: sine, cosine, tangent. B) Trig functions on the unit circle:

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