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5.8 What If I Know the Hypotenuse? Pg. 23 Sine and Cosine Ratios

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5.8 – What If I Know the Hypotenuse? Sine and Cosine Ratios In the previous section, you used the idea of similarity in right triangles to find a relationship between the acute angles and the lengths of the legs of a right triangle. However, we do not always work just with the legs of a right triangle – sometimes we only know the length of the hypotenuse. By the end of this lesson, you will be able to use two new trigonometric ratios that involve the hypotenuse of right triangles.

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5.43 – MISSING THE LEGS a. What is the relationship between the two triangles below? Explain your reasoning. Similar, AA~

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b. Find the rise for the slope triangles shown at right. x 2 + 2.3 2 = 3 2 x 2 + 5.29 = 9 x 2 = 3.71 x = 1.93 1.93 3.86

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c.Find the ratio for each triangle. Why must these ratios be equal? 1.93 3.86 O A H O A H 2.3 3 4.6 6 = 23 30 = 23 30 Ratios are equal because triangles are similar

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5.44 – MISSING THE LEGS In the last problem, you used a ratio that included the hypotenuse of ∆ABC. One of these ratios is known as the sine ratio (pronounced "sign"). This is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the acute angle to the length of the hypotenuse.

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O A H

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O A H

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5.45 – CALCLUATOR TIME! a. Like the tangent, your calculator can give you both the sine and cosine ratios for any angle. Locate the "sin" and "cos" buttons on your calculator and use them to find the sine and cosine of 40°. Make sure you get the correct answers and are in degree mode. sin 40° = ____________________ cos 40° = _____________________ 0.64 0.77

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Shows each ratio in relation to the sides

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b. Use a trig ratio to write an equation and solve for a in the diagram at right. Does this require the sine ratio or the cosine ratio? Begin by labeling the opposite, adjacent, and hypotenuse. What side do you know? What side are you solving for? O H 1 A

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c. Likewise, write an equation and solve for b in the triangle at right. O H 1 A

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5.46 – THE STREETS OF SAN FRANCISCO While traveling around the beautiful city of San Francisco, Julia climbed several steep streets. One of the steepest, Filbert Street, has a slope angle of 31.5° according to her guide book. Once Julia finished walking 100 feet up the hill, she decided to figure out how high she had climbed. Julia drew the diagram below to represent the situation.

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a. Can the Pythagorean theorem be used to find the opposite and adjacent side? Why or why not? No, only know one side

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b. Can special triangles be used to find the opposite and adjacent side? Why or why not? No, 31.5 isn’t special

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c. Can we use sine, cosine, or tangent to find the opposite and adjacent side? Why or why not? O H A Sine and cosine because we know the hypotenuse and one angle

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d. Julia still wants to know how many feet she climbed vertically and horizontally when she walked up Filbert Street. Use one of your new trig ratios to find both parts of the missing triangle. O H A 1

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O H A 1

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5.47 – TRIGONOMETRY For each triangle below, decide which side is opposite, adjacent, or the hypotenuse to the given angle. Then determine which of the three trig ratios will help you find x. Write and sole an equation. SOH-CAH-TOA might help.

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O H A 1

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O H A 1

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O H A 1

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O H A 1

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OH A 1

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O H A 1

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O H A 1

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O H A 1

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5.48 – EXACTLY! Martha arrived for her geometry test only to find that she forgot her calculator. She decided to complete as much of each problem as possible.

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a. In the first problem on the test, Martha was asked to find the length of x in the triangle shown at right. Using her algebra skills, she wrote and solved an equation. Her work is shown below. Explain what she did in each step. Set up equation multiplied divided

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b. Martha's answer in part (a) is called an exact answer. Now use your calculator to help Martha find the approximate length of x. x = 68.62

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c. In the next problem, Martha was asked to find y in the triangle at right. Find the exact answer for y without using a calculator. Then use a calculator to find an approximate value for y.

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O H A 1

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5.49 – CONCLUSIONS Describe how to determine when to use the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios. What are the steps in setting up an equation? How can you write an exact answer?

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