Presentation on theme: "Overview of Formative Assessment (Diagnostic & Feedback) vs. Summative Assessment (Mastery & Standardised) Presented by Philip Holmes-Smith School Research."— Presentation transcript:
Overview of Formative Assessment (Diagnostic & Feedback) vs. Summative Assessment (Mastery & Standardised) Presented by Philip Holmes-Smith School Research Evaluation and Measurement Services
Definitions Formative AssessmentFormative Assessment Black and Wiliam (1998)* define formative assessment as “all those activities undertaken by teachers, and/or by students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.” (Diagnostic Pre-Assessment)(Feedback) As such, formative assessment is generally carried out both prior to teaching (Diagnostic or Pre-Assessment) and during a learning activity (Feedback). informs Formative assessment informs teaching and learning. Summative AssessmentSummative Assessment Summative assessments are typically used to assign students to a course grade or to place students along a continuum of development. (Mastery Assessment) (Standardised Assessment) As such, summative assessment is usually administered at the completion of a unit of work (Mastery Assessment) or at some standardised point in time (Standardised Assessment). evaluates Summative assessment evaluates teaching and learning. *Black, Paul & Wiliam, Dylan (1998). "Assessment and classroom learning". Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 5 (1).
Formative Summative Formative vs. Summative Assessment. cook formative. When the cook tastes the soup, that's formative. guest summative. When a guest tastes the soup, that's summative. Robert E. Stake* *In: Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation thesaurus. 4th ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Formative Diagnostic (or Pre-) Assessment Main Purpose (main question answered): –To discover what the student already knows and what they don’t know. Assessment tools such as: –Marie Clay Observation Survey – Reading (Prep-2), –Record of Oral Language – Receptive Language (Prep-2), –AlphaAssess or PM Benchmark Reading Running Records (Prep-2), –English Online Interview – Literacy (Prep-2 – Gov. schools only); –Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System – Literacy (Prep-8), –Cars & Stars – Reading (Prep-8), –Probe 2 – Reading (Yr3-10), –Maths Online Interview (MOI)/ Maths Assessment Interview (MAI) – Numeracy (Prep-4), –SINE – Numeracy (Prep-8 – CEO schools only), –On-Demand Linear Tests – Reading and Number (Yr3-8), Type of questions included: –A sampling of material ranging from those topics that students should already have mastered, through the current curriculum being taught, onto topics the student may not yet have been exposed to formally in the classroom. Desired outcome: –No good or bad score. Results are used to inform teaching.
Main Purpose (main question answered): Main Purpose (main question answered): – –To Determine whether or not students are developing appropriate skills and understanding key concepts. Assessment tools such as: Assessment tools such as: – –Classroom observations, – –Quick quiz, – –Class questions, etc. Type of Questions included: Type of Questions included: – –A sampling of the knowledge and skills cover in the current curriculum being taught. Desired outcome: Desired outcome: – –No good or bad score. Results are used to inform teaching Formative Feedback
Diagnostic Testing & Feedback Hattie (2003)† shows that our most effective teachers (in terms of improving the learning outcomes of students) constantly use Feedback (including diagnostic assessment) to inform their teaching. Hattie (2009)* shows that using feedback has one of the biggest impacts on improving student learning outcomes. (Effect size =0.73) 2003: 2009: Hattie, John. (2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. NY: Routledge. † *
Main Purpose (main question answered): Main Purpose (main question answered): – –To test whether or not a student has mastered the skills as set out in the current curriculum being taught. Assessment tools such as: Assessment tools such as: – –Classroom-based topic tests (e.g. Yr4 Maths test on area & volume, Yr7 Science test on Cells, etc.) – –VCE exams, – –AMEB Music Exams. Type of Questions included: Type of Questions included: – –A sampling of the knowledge and skills cover in the current curriculum being taught. Desired outcome: Desired outcome: – –If students have learnt well they should get a 100% mark on the test Summative Mastery Assessment
Mastery tests have at least two major uses, namely: they provide immediate feedback to teachers on how well students have mastered the knowledge and skills of the work currently being taught – information that can be used to provide individual remediation if needed before proceeding to the next topic, and they provide feedback to parents about the progress of their children against the taught curriculum. Summative (Mastery) Testing
Main Purpose (main question answered): – –To determine where a student falls along a continuum of development. Assessment tools such as: – –NAPLAN, – –On-Demand Adaptive Tests, – –PAT-R or TORCH (Reading), – –PAT-Math and I Can Do Maths (Maths), – –South Australian Spelling or Single Word Spelling Test (SWST) (Spelling), – –PAT-Written Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (PAT-SPG) (Spelling & Grammar) Type of Questions included: – –A sampling of material ranging from those topics that students should already have mastered, through the current curriculum being taught, onto topics the student may not yet have been exposed to formally in the classroom. Desired outcome: – –If the test difficulty has been chosen correctly for a student the student should get about 50% of the questions correct. Summative Standardised Assessment
Summative testing is essential to : monitor the effectiveness of your teaching, and monitor the progress of students along a developmental continuum. But, research shows that summative tests do not lead to improved learning outcomes. As the saying goes: “You don’t fatten a pig by weighing it” (i.e. we don’t improve learning merely by doing more summative testing) So, although it is essential, keep summative assessment to a minimum.
Summary Diagnostic Use Diagnostic testing to determine what students already know and what they don’t know which should then be used to inform your teaching. Feedback Seek Feedback regularly during teaching and learning to determine whether or not students are developing appropriate skills and understanding key concepts. Mastery Use Mastery testing to monitor whether students have mastered the learning covered in the curriculum you have offered. Summative Use Summative testing to: monitor the effectiveness of your teaching, and place students at some point along the curriculum continuum.
Reflection Reflect on one or more of these questions: Reflect on one or more of these questions: What was the most important point in this section? What was the most surprising idea or concept? What questions remain unanswered in your mind? What was the ‘muddiest’ point in this section? (What didn’t you understand?) How will you use this information to improve teaching? What information will you share with colleagues back at school?