Presentation on theme: "electronics fundamentals"— Presentation transcript:
1 electronics fundamentals circuits, devices, and applicationsTHOMAS L. FLOYDDAVID M. BUCHLAchapter 8
2 Sine wavesThe sinusoidal waveform (sine wave) is the fundamental alternating current (ac) and alternating voltage waveform.Electrical sine waves are named from the mathematical function with the same shape.
3 A wave is a disturbance. Unlike water waves, electrical waves cannot be seen directly but they have similar characteristics. All periodic waves can be constructed from sine waves, which is why sine waves are fundamental.
4 Sine wavesSine waves are characterized by the amplitude and period. The amplitude is the maximum value of a voltage or current; the period is the time interval for one complete cycle.ExampleAThe amplitude (A) of this sine wave is20 VTThe period is50.0 ms
5 Sine wavesThe period of a sine wave can be measured between any two corresponding points on the waveform.TTTTATTBy contrast, the amplitude of a sine wave is only measured from the center to the maximum point.
6 FrequencyFrequency ( f ) is the number of cycles that a sine wave completes in one second.Frequency is measured in hertz (Hz).ExampleIf 3 cycles of a wave occur in one second, the frequency is3.0 Hz1.0 s
7 Period and frequencyThe period and frequency are reciprocals of each other.andThus, if you know one, you can easily find the other.(The 1/x key on your calculator is handy for converting between f and T.)ExampleIf the period is 50 ms, the frequency is0.02 MHz = 20 kHz.
8 Sinusoidal voltage sources Generation of a sine wave Sinusoidal voltages are produced by ac generators and electronic oscillators.When a conductor rotates in a constant magnetic field, a sinusoidal wave is generated.DBCAWhen the loop is moving perpendicular to the lines of flux, the maximum voltage is induced.When the conductor is moving parallel with the lines of flux, no voltage is induced.
9 AC generator (alternator) Generators convert rotational energy to electrical energy. A stationary field alternator with a rotating armature is shown. The armature has an induced voltage, which is connected through slip rings and brushes to a load. The armature loops are wound on a magnetic core (not shown for simplicity).Small alternators may use a permanent magnet as shown here; other use field coils to produce the magnetic flux.
10 AC generator (alternator) By increasing the number of poles, the number of cycles per revolution is increased. A four-pole generator will produce two complete cycles in each revolution.
12 Sine wave voltage and current values There are several ways to specify the voltage of a sinusoidal voltage waveform. The amplitude of a sine wave is also called the peak value, abbreviated as VP for a voltage waveform.VPExampleThe peak voltage of this waveform is20 V.
13 Sine wave voltage and current values The voltage of a sine wave can also be specified as either the peak-to-peak or the rms value. The peak-to-peak is twice the peak value. The rms value is times the peak value.ExampleThe peak-to-peak voltage isVrms40 V.VPPThe rms voltage is14.1 V.
14 Sine wave voltage and current values For some purposes, the average value (actually the half-wave average) is used to specify the voltage or current. By definition, the average value is as times the peak value.ExampleVavgThe average value for the sinusoidal voltage is12.7 V.
15 Angular measurementAngular measurements can be made in degrees (o) or radians. The radian (rad) is the angle that is formed when the arc is equal to the radius of a circle. There are 360o or 2p radians in one complete revolution.
16 Angular measurementThere are 2p radians in one complete revolution and 360o in one revolution. To find the number of radians, given the number of degrees:This can be simplified to:To find the number of degrees, given the number of radians:
17 Angular measurement Example Solution: Example Solution: How many radians are in 45o?Solution:ExampleHow many degrees are in 1.2 radians?Solution:
18 Sine wave equationInstantaneous values of a wave are shown as v or i. The equation for the instantaneous voltage (v) of a sine wave iswhereVp =Peak voltageq =Angle in rad or degreesExampleIf the peak voltage is 25 V, the instantaneous voltage at 50 degrees is19.2 V
19 Sine wave equationA plot of the example in the previous slide (peak at 25 V) is shown. The instantaneous voltage at 50o is 19.2 V as previously calculated.
20 PhasorsThe sine wave can be represented as the projection of a vector rotating at a constant rate. This rotating vector is called a phasor. Phasors are useful for showing the phase relationships in ac circuits.
21 Phase shiftThe phase of a sine wave is an angular measurement that specifies the position of a sine wave relative to a reference. To show that a sine wave is shifted to the left or right of this reference, a term is added to the equation given previously.wheref =Phase shift
22 Phase shift Example of a wave that lags the reference …and the equation has a negative phase shiftv = 30 V sin (q - 45o)Notice that a lagging sine wave is below the axis at 0o
23 Phase shift Example of a wave that leads the reference Notice that a leading sine wave is above the axis at 0ov = 30 V sin (q + 45o)…and the equation has a positive phase shift
24 Phase shiftAn important application of phase-shifted sine waves is in electrical power systems. Electrical utilities generate ac with three phases that are separated by 120° as illustrated.Normally, 3-phase power is delivered to the user with three hot lines plus neutral. The voltage of each phase, with respect to neutral is 120 V.120o120o120o
25 Power in resistive AC circuits The power relationships developed for dc circuits apply to ac circuits except you must use rms values in ac circuits when calculating power.For example, the dc and the ac sources produce the same power to the bulb:The power formulas are:120 Vdc0 V170 Vp= 120 Vrms0 V
26 Power in resistive AC circuits Assume a sine wave with a peak value of 40 V is applied to a 100 W resistive load. What power is dissipated?ExampleSolutionVrms = x Vp = x 40 V = V8 W
27 Superimposed dc and ac voltages Frequently dc and ac voltages are together in a waveform. They can be added algebraically, to produce a composite waveform of an ac voltage “riding” on a dc level.
28 AlternatorsAlternators are ac generators. Utility companies use 3-phase alternators and deliver all three phases to industrial customers. A simplified 3-phase alternator is illustrated.Phase 1NeutralPhase 2Phase 3
29 AlternatorsIn vehicles, alternators generate ac, which is converted to dc for operating electrical devices and charging the battery. A basic vehicle alternator is illustrated. AC is more efficient to produce and can be easily regulated,hence it is generated and converted todc by diodes.The output is taken from the rotor through the slip rings.
30 AC MotorsThere are two major classifications of ac motors. These are the induction motor and the synchronous motor. Both types use a rotating field in the stator windings.Induction motors work because current is induced in the rotor by the changing current in the stator. This current creates a magnetic field that reacts with the moving field of the stator, which develops a torque and causes the rotor to turn.Synchronous motors have a magnet for the rotor. In small motors, this can be a permanent magnet, which keeps up with the rotating field of the stator. Large motors use an electromagnet in the rotor, with external dc supplied to generate the magnetic field.
32 Pulse definitions Non-ideal pulses Notice that rise and fall times are measured between the 10% and 90% levels whereas pulse width is measured at the 50% level.
33 Triangular and sawtooth waves Triangular and sawtooth waveforms are formed by voltage or current ramps (linear increase/decrease)Triangular waveforms have positive-going and negative-going ramps of equal duration.The sawtooth waveform consists of two ramps, one of much longer duration than the other.
34 HarmonicsAll repetitive non-sinusoidal waveforms are composed of a fundamental frequency (repetition rate of the waveform) and harmonic frequencies.Odd harmonics are frequencies that are odd multiples of the fundamental frequency.Even harmonics are frequencies that are even multiples of the fundamental frequency.
35 HarmonicsA square wave is composed only of the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics (of the proper amplitude).
36 OscilloscopesThe oscilloscope is divided into four main sections.
39 Selected Key Terms Sine wave Alternating currentPeriod (T)Frequency (f)HertzA type of waveform that follows a cyclic sinusoidal pattern defined by the formula y = A sin q.Current that reverses direction in response to a change in source voltage polarity.The time interval for one complete cycle of a periodic waveform.A measure of the rate of change of a periodic function; the number of cycles completed in 1 s.The unit of frequency. One hertz equals one cycle per second.
40 Selected Key Terms Instantaneous value Peak valuePeak-to-peak valuerms valueThe voltage or current value of a waveform at a given instant in time.The voltage or current value of a waveform at its maximum positive or negative points.The voltage or current value of a waveform measured from its minimum to its maximum points.The value of a sinusoidal voltage that indicates its heating effect, also known as effective value. It is equal to times the peak value. rms stands for root mean square.
41 Selected Key TermsA unit of angular measurement. There are 2p radians in one complete 360o revolution.RadianPhaseAmplitudePulseHarmonicsThe relative angular displacement of a time-varying waveform in terms of its occurrence with respect to a reference.The maximum value of a voltage or current.A type of waveform that consists of two equal and opposite steps in voltage or current separated by a time interval.The frequencies contained in a composite waveform, which are integer multiples of the pulse repetition frequency.
42 Quiz1. In North America, the frequency of ac utility voltage is 60 Hz. The period isa. 8.3 msb msc. 60 msd. 60 s
43 Quiz 2. The amplitude of a sine wave is measured a. at the maximum pointb. between the minimum and maximum pointsc. at the midpointd. anywhere on the wave
44 Quiz3. An example of an equation for a waveform that lags the reference isa. v = -40 V sin (q)b. v = 100 V sin (q + 35o)c. v = 5.0 V sin (q - 27o)d. v = 27 V
45 Quiz 4. In the equation v = Vp sin q , the letter v stands for the a. peak valueb. average valuec. rms valued. instantaneous value
46 Quiz5. The time base of an oscilloscope is determined by the setting of thea. vertical controlsb. horizontal controlsc. trigger controlsd. none of the above
47 Quiz 6. A sawtooth waveform has a. equal positive and negative going rampsb. two ramps - one much longer than the otherc. two equal pulsesd. two unequal pulses
48 Quiz7. The number of radians in 90o area. p/2b. pc. 2p/3d. 2p
49 Quiz8. For the waveform shown, the same power would be delivered to a load with a dc voltage ofa Vb Vc Vd V
50 Quiz 9. A square wave consists of a. the fundamental and odd harmonics b. the fundamental and even harmonicsc. the fundamental and all harmonicsd. only the fundamental
51 Quiz10. A control on the oscilloscope that is used to set the desired number of cycles of a wave on the display isa. volts per division controlb. time per division controlc. trigger level controld. horizontal position control