Presentation on theme: "National Politics Since 1968 SSUSH 25. ssush 25 A Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal,"— Presentation transcript:
National Politics Since 1968 SSUSH 25
ssush 25 A Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, his resignation due to the Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford
Opening of China Nixon’s foreign policy goal was to establish cordial relations with the world’s major nations: ▫ End fighting in Vietnam ▫ “Normalize” relations with China Nixon & his National Security advisor, Henry Kissinger, visit China in 1972
Results of China Visit 1. Recognizing one China (not Taiwan) 2. Future trade b/w US & China 3. Soviet Union abandons support for North Vietnam (1973) 4. Nuclear disarmament treaty b/w US & USSR
Watergate Scandal 1972 Nixon re-elected as President; however, scandals caused his resignation on August 9, ▫ -illegal campaign contributions ▫ Burglary of DNC Headquarters at Watergate
Impact of Watergate Negative Positive Increased cynicism & distrust of govt. Damaged reputation of Republican Party Protection for media to disseminate information Efforts began to limit corporate campaign contributions
Ford as President Nixon’s VP, Spiro Agnew had been forced to resign over tax- evasion charges, and he was replaced by Gerald Ford. Issues during his presidency: ▫ Pardon given to Nixon ▫ Recession in national economy & fights with Congress ▫ Failed to develop a national energy policy ▫ Continued to improve foreign relations
SSUSH 25 B Explain the impact of Supreme Court Decisions on ideas about civil liberties & civil rights; include such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) & the Bakke decision on affirmative action
Roe v. Wade 1973 Topic: Abortion Court expanded the constitutional right of privacy to include abortion = expanded protection of civil liberties
Regents of Univ. of California v. Bakke 1978 Ruled that race can be used when considering applicants to colleges but racial quotas cannot be used Significant because it gave constitutional protection to affirmative action programs that gave equal access to minorities.
Explain the Carter administration’s efforts in the Middle East; include: Camp David Accords, His response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, and the Iranian hostage Crisis
James (Jimmy) Carter, D Elected in 1976 Presidency viewed as a domestic failure (economic problems, energy crisis) but great foreign policy success (human rights)
Foreign Policy Returned the Panama Canal zone to Panama Camp David Accords (1978) - brokered an end to the Israeli-Egyptian conflict Carter Doctrine- Pledge to protect Persian Gulf from Soviet aggression after Soviets invaded Afghanistan.
Iranian Revolution/ Hostage Crisis- ▫ US support for Shah of Iran vs. Islamic Fundamentalists Fundamentalists win ▫ US interests targeted by Iranian backed terrorist groups (angry over US support of Shah & support for Israel) ▫ Revolutionaries take over the US embassy and hold staff hostage (11/79- 1/81) ▫ Carter tried to negotiate but failed, tried to rescue but failed major reason for his failed re-election in 1980
Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Include: Reaganomics Iran-contra scandal and The collapse of the Soviet Union
Ronald Reagan 1980 Elected President Promised to restore the U.S. Economy and prestige at home & abroad Nicknamed “The Great Communicator”
Domestic Policies Supply-side economics Reaganomics. ▫ If Americans had more money to spend the economy would improve Key Pts of Reaganomics: ▫ Reduce govt. spending increases ▫ Reduce income tax & capital gains tax ▫ Reduce govt. regulation ▫ Control money supply to reduce inflation General period of economic growth; however, dramatic increases in federal deficits
Foreign Policies Reagan began the largest peace-time build-up of the U.S. military in our history Reagan Doctrine we would support any anti-Soviet guerilla movement (also Islamic terrorism). ▫ Support in Afghanistan resulted in Soviet defeat ▫ Air strikes against Libya (after terrorist attack on US servicemen in Germany) ▫ Put down Communist backed movements in Central America
Iran-Contra Scandal ▫ Congress refused to support the Contra in Nicaragua ▫ Reagan had the National Security Council sell guns to Iran to Encourage the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian forces in Lebanon Gain profits to send to the Contra in Nicaragua Influence Iran in a “pro-western” direction
End of the Cold War Reagan begins rebuilding the military and talks about the anti-ballistic missile shield (“Star Wars”) ▫ Soviet’s can’t afford to respond THEN Reagan convinces Saudi Arabians to lower the price of crude oil (cuts into Soviet revenue) USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev introduces economic & political reform programs
Result of those programs in the USSR: ▫ a dialog b/w the two countries ▫ a nuclear arms agreement ▫ Rebellion for independence of many satellite nations 1989 Berlin Wall is torn down 1991 marked the end of the Cold War with the collapse of the Soviet Union
Next president: George H.W. Bush, R
Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton. Include: North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Impeachment and acquittal
Elected in 1992 Economically oversaw tax cuts, reduced spending, a balanced budget with a surplus! Rocky relationship with Congress: ▫ Executive Order DADT ▫ Attorney General nominee had used illegal immigrants as domestic help ▫ By 1994 Republican dominated congress President William Jefferson Clinton, D
NAFTA Brought Mexico into a free-trade (tariff-free) zone that already existed between the US & Canada. Arguments: ▫ Against send US jobs to Mexico and harm environment ▫ For—> open up a growing Mexican market to US companies
Impeachment 2 nd president to suffer impeachment House of Reps. Charged him with perjury & obstruction of justice ▫ b/c of improper use of $ from a real estate deal and denial of an affair Senate acquitted him
Analyze the 2000 Presidential election & its outcome emphasizing the role of the electoral college.
Election of 2000 Al Gore, D vs. George W. Bush, R Bush won electoral college, Gore won popular vote Controversy: Florida (where Jeb Bush was Governor) ▫ Vote was so close there was a mandatory re-count which resulted in a law suit & counter suit. Supreme Court rusled recount would be unconstitutional. BushGore Electoral Vote States Carried3020 and DC Popular Vote50,456, 00250,999,897 Percentage47.9%48.4%
Analyze the response of President George W. bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001: on the US, the war against terrorism, and the Subsequent American interventions in Afghanistan & Iraq
9/11 Islamic terrorist launched a series of attacks on the US using airliners (Twin Towers, the Pentagon, Pennsylvania)
Bush’s Response Bush signed the Patriot Act (supported by Congress & the Am. Public) ▫ US could hold foreign citizens suspected of being terrorists for up to 7 days ▫ Increased ability of law-enforcement agencies to search private communications & personal records Creation of Department of Homeland Security ▫ Responsible for protecting the US from terrorist attacks & natural disasters.
Response Cont…. Larger war on Terrorism Authorization of Operation Enduring Freedom invasion of Afghanistan by the US and allied forces. ▫ Why? The Taliban govt. there was harboring al- Qaeda leadership (Osama Bin Laden escaped) March 2003, Operation Iraqi Freedom invasion of Iraq by the US & GB ▫ Saddam Hussein went into hiding while forces searched for weapons of mass destruction (WMD). ▫ No WMDs were ever found, Hussein was convicted and executed in 2006 for crimes against humanity