2Describe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China, ssush 25 ADescribe President Richard M. Nixon’s opening of China,his resignation due to the Watergate scandal,changing attitudes toward government, andthe Presidency of Gerald Ford
3Opening of ChinaNixon’s foreign policy goal was to establish cordial relations with the world’s major nations:End fighting in Vietnam“Normalize” relations with ChinaNixon & his National Security advisor, Henry Kissinger, visit China in 1972
4Results of China Visit 1. Recognizing one China (not Taiwan) 2. Future trade b/w US & China3. Soviet Union abandons support for North Vietnam (1973)4. Nuclear disarmament treaty b/w US & USSR
5Watergate Scandal1972 Nixon re-elected as President; however, scandals caused his resignation on August 9, 1974.-illegal campaign contributionsBurglary of DNC Headquarters at Watergate
6Impact of Watergate Negative Positive Increased cynicism & distrust of govt.Damaged reputation of Republican PartyProtection for media to disseminate informationEfforts began to limit corporate campaign contributions
7Ford as President Nixon’s VP, Spiro Agnew had been forced to resign over tax- evasion charges, and hewas replaced by Gerald Ford.Issues during his presidency:Pardon given to NixonRecession in national economy & fights with CongressFailed to develop a national energy policyContinued to improve foreign relations
8SSUSH 25 B- Pt. out Thrugood Marshall on back row. Appointed to Supreme Ct. by LBJ in 1967- Also, New Chief Justice Warren BurgerExplain the impact of Supreme Court Decisions on ideas about civil liberties & civil rights; include such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) & the Bakke decision on affirmative action
9Roe v. Wade 1973 Topic: Abortion Court expanded the constitutional right of privacy to include abortion = expanded protection of civil liberties
10Regents of Univ. of California v. Bakke 1978 Ruled that race can be used when considering applicants to colleges but racial quotas cannot be usedSignificant because it gave constitutional protection to affirmative action programs that gave equal access to minorities.
11Part cExplain the Carter administration’s efforts in the Middle East; include:Camp David Accords,His response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, andthe Iranian hostage Crisis
12James (Jimmy) Carter, D Elected in 1976 Presidency viewed as a domestic failure (economic problems, energy crisis) but great foreign policy success (human rights)
13Foreign Policy Returned the Panama Canal zone to Panama Camp David Accords (1978)- brokered an end to the Israeli-Egyptian conflictCarter Doctrine- Pledge to protect Persian Gulf from Soviet aggression after Soviets invaded Afghanistan.
14Iranian Revolution/ Hostage Crisis- US support for Shah of Iran vs. Islamic Fundamentalists Fundamentalists winUS interests targeted by Iranian backed terrorist groups (angry over US support of Shah & support for Israel)Revolutionaries take over the US embassy and hold staff hostage (11/79- 1/81)Carter tried to negotiate but failed, tried to rescue but failed major reason for his failed re-election in 1980
15Part dDescribe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Include:ReaganomicsIran-contra scandal andThe collapse of the Soviet Union
16Ronald Reagan 1980 Elected President Promised to restore the U.S. Economy and prestige at home & abroadNicknamed “The Great Communicator”
17Domestic Policies Supply-side economics Reaganomics. If Americans had more money to spend the economy would improveKey Pts of Reaganomics:Reduce govt. spending increasesReduce income tax & capital gains taxReduce govt. regulationControl money supply to reduce inflationGeneral period of economic growth; however, dramatic increases in federal deficits
18Foreign PoliciesReagan began the largest peace-time build-up of the U.S. military in our historyReagan Doctrine we would support any anti-Soviet guerilla movement (also Islamic terrorism).Support in Afghanistan resulted in Soviet defeatAir strikes against Libya (after terrorist attack on US servicemen in Germany)Put down Communist backed movements in Central America
19Iran-Contra Scandal Congress refused to support the Contra in NicaraguaReagan had the National Security Council sell guns to Iran toEncourage the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian forces in LebanonGain profits to send to the Contra in NicaraguaInfluence Iran in a “pro-western” directionContra A member of a guerrilla force in Nicaragua that opposed the left-wing Sandinista government 1979–90, and was supported by the US
20End of the Cold WarReagan begins rebuilding the military and talks about the anti-ballistic missile shield (“Star Wars”)Soviet’s can’t afford to respond THENReagan convinces Saudi Arabians to lower the price of crude oil (cuts into Soviet revenue)USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev introduces economic & political reform programsSoviet Union’s chief source of revenue was oil exports
21Result of those programs in the USSR: a dialog b/w the two countriesa nuclear arms agreementRebellion for independence of many satellite nations1989 Berlin Wall is torn down1991 marked the end of the Cold War with the collapse of the Soviet Union
23Ssush 25 eExplain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton. Include:North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) andImpeachment and acquittal
24President William Jefferson Clinton, D Elected in 1992Economically oversaw tax cuts, reduced spending, a balanced budget with a surplus!Rocky relationship with Congress:Executive Order DADTAttorney General nominee had used illegal immigrants as domestic helpBy 1994 Republican dominated congress
25NAFTABrought Mexico into a free-trade (tariff-free) zone that already existed between the US & Canada.Arguments:Against send US jobs to Mexico and harm environmentFor—> open up a growing Mexican market to US companies
26Impeachment 2nd president to suffer impeachment House of Reps. Charged him with perjury & obstruction of justiceb/c of improper use of $ from a real estate deal and denial of an affairSenate acquitted him
27Ssush 25 fAnalyze the 2000 Presidential election & its outcome emphasizing the role of the electoral college.
28Election of 2000 Al Gore, D vs. George W. Bush, R Electoral Vote271266States Carried3020 and DCPopular Vote50,456, 00250,999,897Percentage47.9%48.4%Election of 2000Al Gore, D vs. George W. Bush, RBush won electoral college, Gore won popular voteControversy: Florida (where Jeb Bush was Governor)Vote was so close there was a mandatory re-count which resulted in a law suit & counter suit.Supreme Court rusled recount would be unconstitutional.
29Ssush 25 gAnalyze the response of President George W. bush to the attacks of September 11, 2001:on the US,the war against terrorism, and theSubsequent American interventions in Afghanistan & Iraq
309/11Islamic terrorist launched a series of attacks on the US using airliners (Twin Towers, the Pentagon, Pennsylvania)
31Bush’s ResponseBush signed the Patriot Act (supported by Congress & the Am. Public)US could hold foreign citizens suspected of being terrorists for up to 7 daysIncreased ability of law-enforcement agencies to search private communications & personal recordsCreation of Department of Homeland SecurityResponsible for protecting the US from terrorist attacks & natural disasters.
32Response Cont…. Larger war on Terrorism Authorization of Operation Enduring Freedom invasion of Afghanistan by the US and allied forces.Why? The Taliban govt. there was harboring al- Qaeda leadership (Osama Bin Laden escaped)March 2003, Operation Iraqi Freedom invasion of Iraq by the US & GBSaddam Hussein went into hiding while forces searched for weapons of mass destruction (WMD).No WMDs were ever found, Hussein was convicted and executed in 2006 for crimes against humanity