1890-1920 A variety of reforms were enacted at all levels Many Progressives believed that political action and reform were required for progress in society.
Progressives were not a single unified movement. Their efforts fell into four categories: Social Reform Moral Reform Economic Reform Political Reform
Journalists that exposed turn of the century problems such as illegal business activities, putrid food, quack medicines, squalid living conditions, dangerous working conditions, etc. The uncovering of these awful truths led progressives to demand changes.
Economic Reformers sought to curb the power and influence of wealthy interests. »Monopolies »Trusts »Gap between Rich and Poor
Enacted in 1890 Effort by Congress to end trusts Ineffective due to lack of enforcement
Clayton Antitrust Act Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 Spelled out specific activities businesses could NOT do Aide to Union Strikes now Legal!
Federal Reserve System Central bank of the US Divided nation into 12 regions each w/ its own Federal Reserve Bank
Eight months after the fire, a jury acquitted the factory owners, of any wrong doing. Twenty-three individual civil suits were brought against the owners of the Asch building. On March 11, 1913, three years after the fire, the owners settled. They paid 75 dollars per life lost. This tragedy led to a push for comprehensive safety and workers compensation laws.
5. Safer Medicines Restriction of Harmful Drugs Proper Labeling Government Approval of Future Drugs/Medicines
Medicines at the turn of the century did not require a prescription. Making exaggerated claims, they were used for a variety of ailments. Many contained dangerous ingredients.
Created Food and Drug Administration, responsibility of testing all foods and drugs destined for human consumption The requirement for prescriptions from licensed physicians before a patient could purchase certain drugs The requirement of label warnings on habit-forming drugs.
All animals were required to pass an inspection by the FDA prior to slaughter All carcasses were subject to a post- mortem inspection Cleanliness standards were established for slaughterhouses and processing plants.
7. Civil Rights Movement African Americans were still fighting for basic rights guaranteed them in the Constitution
Voter Restrictions Poll Tax – Pay a fee to vote Literacy Test – prove you could read & write to vote Grandfather Clause – exempts a group of people from obeying a law provided they met certain conditions before law was passed
Jim Crow Laws – System of laws that segregated public services by race
Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” Supreme Court ruled against Homer Plessy saying segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal
Lynching – mob’s illegal seizure & execution of a person, usually by hanging
Booker T. Washington – encouraged African Am. To become educated & learn a trade
WEB DuBois – encouraged African Am. To attend college & become leaders; Also started NAACP
NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Worked through courts to gain equal rights for African Am.
Many felt the Morals of our society were at the root of many turn of the century problems. - Moral Reformers sought to promote Moral Improvements: End Prostitution End Gambling End Drunkenness Education for Children Americanization and Restriction of Immigrants
Prohibition of Alcohol Banned production, distribution, & transportation of Alcohol
Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they can competently handle an expanded role. Political Reformers demanded Political Honesty and Accountability Patronage/Spoils System Only Politicians can introduce bills Only Legislatures can pass laws Only Courts can remove corrupt officials Political Machines Bribery
The giving of jobs or other political favors to supporters – even if they are not qualified Even Presidents did it! …until…
“Shame of the Cities” Exposed big city political corruption
BEFORE Party leaders chose candidates for state & local offices AFTER Direct Primaries – Voters select their party’s candidates
BEFORE State legislature chose US Senators AFTER 17 th Amendment – US Senators are elected by popular vote
BEFORE Only members of state legislature can introduce bills AFTER Initiative – Voters can put bills before the legislation
BEFORE Only legislatures pass laws AFTER Referendum – voters can vote on bills directly DE voters control raising school taxes
BEFORE Only courts or legislature can remove corrupt officials AFTER Recall – voters can remove elected officials from office
Led the fight to dissolve 40 monopolies as a “trust buster“ “Square Deal" promised a fair shake for the average citizen, including: regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs. promotion of the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources.
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