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Link between people & their gov’t

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1 Link between people & their gov’t
Chapter 5 Section 1 Political Party - group of persons who seek to control gov’t by winning elections and holding office US 2 MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES - Republican and Democrat Each party is a COALITION = union of many persons of diverse interests who join together to get candidate elected to public office. Parties are mechanisms that: 1. develop broad policy 2. develop leadership choices 3. present options to people Link between people & their gov’t Parties bring: conflicting groups together modify and compromise contending views unify people

Chapter 5 Section 1 5 MAJOR FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY PARTIES 1. NOMINATING FUNCTION Name candidates for office gather support for candidate 2. INFORMER-STIMULATOR FUNCTION Parties educate people and get them excited in their interest and participation in public affairs Other groups – Media and Interest Groups They CAMPAIGN take stand on issues criticize candidates and position of opponent They INFORM PEOPLE (to parties advantage) Ex. educating by: pamphlets, signs, buttons, stickers, ads, radio, TV, speeches, rallies, conventions - INTERNET.

Chapter 5 Section 1 5 MAJOR FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY PARTIES 3. “SEAL OF APPROVAL” FUNCTION Party approves candidate Choosing one that is qualified and of good character and perform duties well 4. GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTION US described as gov’t by party (Those who govern are chosen by party) Parties also provide a basis for the conduct of gov’t Under separation of powers, party is major agent through which executive and legislative branches cooperate with each other. 5. WATCH DOG FUNCTION Parties act as watchdogs over the conduct of the public’s business. This is the particular function of party OUT OF OFFICE or power Criticizes policies and behavior of party in power

4 Section 2 – Two Party System
Chapter 5 Section 2 – Two Party System Minor party - less supported in political system US has a 2 party system = Republican/ Democrat 4 FACTORS EXPLAIN WHY US HAS AND CONTINUES TO HAVE A 2 PARTY SYSTEM 1. HISTORICAL BASIS - Framers opposed parties Began when nation started: Federalist/ Anti-Federalists Became country’s 1st 2 party in the debate over ratification (Federalists papers) 2. FORCE OF TRADITION Most Americans accept 2 party system b/c always has been that way Minor parties have a little headway.

5 Section 2 – Two Party System
Chapter 5 Section 2 – Two Party System 3. ELECTORAL SYSTEM Promote 2 party system Single member district preserve 2 party system State elections laws are deliberately written to discourage minor parties. WINNER TAKES ALL ELECTION PLURALITY = largest number of votes Plurality need NOT be majority 4. AMERICAN IDEOLOGICAL CONSENSUS US is a pluralistic society (several distinct cultures and groups) Americans tend to agree on fundamental issues = CONSENSUS American’s major political parties tend to take MODERATE stand in order to attract the largest possible number of votes.

6 MULTIPARTY SYSTEM - exist mostly in Europe
Chapter 5 Section 2 MULTIPARTY SYSTEM - exist mostly in Europe Parties represent a wide variety of : class, religion, and political interests Each parties representation in legislation depends on the number of votes received. ex. 15% of votes = 15% of legislative seats Often making government unstable To reduce number of parties, countries passed a law requiring minimum % of votes before gaining representation ex. Germany& Greece 5% In America, institutional and ideological factors make multiparty system unlikely. ONE PARTY SYSTEM - Dictatorship Traditionally in US - many areas were dominated by 1 party. ex. Delaware, OH = Republicans 2 party competition is spreading.

7 Chapter 5 Section 2 MEMBERSHIP OF THE PARTIES - Membership is voluntary and is composed of cross-section of population Some Segments of electorate that tend to support 1 party or the other Traditionally, minority groups are Democrats and white males, Protestant, and business community are Republicans (GOP) Major events that influence party choice 1. Family - allegiance, tradition 2. Economic status Higher income usually Republican 3. Major Events 4. Age 5. Residence 6. Education level 7. Work Environment

Chapter 5 Section 3 ERAS OF ONE-PARTY DOMINATION DEMOCRATS Coalition of farmers, planters, pioneers REPUBLICANS Supported by Northern & Western farmers Financial & business interests Controlled the Solid South DEMOCRATS Depression - got support of Southerners, small farmers, organized labor, minorities, big-city political organizations 4. SINCE Republicans dominated White House Democrats controlled Congress etc.

9 Chapter 5 Section 4 Ideological party - based on certain social, economic, or political ideas; differ from majority of population ex. Socialist - favored gov’t takeover of industry Communist Libertarian - promotes individual rights, less gov’t in private lives and opposes taxes and US invasion abroad Single-issue parties - based on ONE ISSUE. Fade away after issue has been resolved or people lose interest. Sometimes able to get one of the major parties to take on their issue. ex. Free soil - opposed slavery Know Nothings - opposed Irish-Catholic immigration Right to Life - opposed abortion Prohibition party - prohibition of mfg, sales, and distribution of alcohol

10 Chapter 5 Section 4 Economic protest parties - appear during difficult financial times. Appeal to people who are angry with economy. People want better prices and wages and lower taxes. Ex. Greenback - appealed to farmers; fee coinage of silver, fed reg of the railroads, income tax, labor legislation Ex. Populist party - demanded public ownership of RR, telephone, and telegraph companies, lower tariffs, and adoption of initiative and referendum Initiative - people introduce a bill in Congress and State by petition Referendum - allow people to vote on bills after passed by legislature Splinter parties - split from major parties; when the leader steps aside the party fades Ex. Bull Moose Party - Progressive party - Theodore Roosevelt Ex. Dixiecrat Ex. American Independent Party - George Wallace

11 Major Characteristics of a MINOR PARTY in American Politics:
Chapter 5 Section 4 Major Characteristics of a MINOR PARTY in American Politics: Short-lived Based on a single issue Formed around a strong personality 3rd Parties Progressives - Roosevelt - didn’t win election but took votes away from Rep - Taft and Dem - Wilson Ross Perot - Independent, won 19% of vote; contributed to Bush losing b/c most REP voted for Perot. He spent $60 mill of his own money Perot ran with the REFORM Party = balancing federal budget, reforming political campaign funding, established term limits for members of Congress, new tax system, restrictions on lobbying gov’t officials Perot was able to receive federal funds = $29 mill; The REP/DEM received $62 mill

12 Chapter 5 Section 5 Major American political parties have DECENTRALIZED STRUCTURE Question: How does decentralization affect relationships among different levels of government? Main Reasons: 1. FEDERALISM - divided 3 levels of government; more than ½ million elected officials 2. NOMINATING PROCESS - intraparty process - within party; process divisive one, same members of party disagree and fight over nomination 3. PRESIDENT - no leader; party not in power is more decentralized Party Players 1. Party members in Organization = Leaders, Activists 2. Party Members through gov’t = Office Holders at all levels of gov’t 3. Party in the Electorate = voters = Voter who votes straight party ticket or its candidates

13 Section 5 President acts as PARTY LEADER. He unites the party through:
Chapter 5 Section 5 President acts as PARTY LEADER. He unites the party through: Popularity Access to Media People appoints for gov’t jobs 2 LEVEL PARTY STRUCTURE 1. National 2. State MAJOR PARTY HAS 4 POINTS OF ORGANIZATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL 1. NATIONAL CONVENTION meets every 4 years nominates President/Vice President adopts party’s rules and writes platform 2. NATIONAL COMMITTEE consists of party leaders from every State Plans National Conventions

Chapter 5 Section 5 MAJOR PARTY HAS 4 POINTS OF ORGANIZATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL 3. NATIONAL CHAIRPERSON appointed by party’s nominee for President Heads National Committee 4. CONGRESSIONAL CAMPAIGN COMMITTEES - Pg. 139 Each party has a campaign committee in EACH HOUSE committees work to REELECT INCUMBENTS and save seats of those retiring members of committee are chosen by their colleagues

15 Chapter 5 Section 5 STATE LEVEL - State Party Chairman leads STATE central committee and runs party’s activities within State and further the party’s interest in state LOCAL LEVEL - Varies because of STATE ELECTION LAWS ex. City council member Party is divides city into small units = WARDS WARDS are divided further into = PRECINCTS Voters of precinct go to same voting place (p. 140) LOCAL PARTIES POLITICAL MACHINE - organized group of individuals who dominate a political party within a geographic area (big city) Uses party’s resources to further own power and control over political system Ex. Tammany Hall – NYC; Gain support by Political Machine assigned small armies of workers to become familiar with residents in neighborhoods.

16 Chapter 5 Section 5 On election day - workers urged supporters to go to poll - promised them gov’t jobs if party won = PATRONAGE = SPOILS SYSTEM Local Party Corruption Local party would print ballots with list of only their candidates Voters forced to cast STRAIGHT TICKET Political machine engaged in illegal voting practices No voter registration “Vote early and vote often” Elected official support and loyalty Local party organization in charge of nominating candidates How things became legal: *1. New Ballot System - printed by government *2. Voter Registration started *3. Pendleton ACT – MERIT SYSTEM = gov’t job is given by qualification and examination ; Spoils system - ILLEGAL

Chapter 5 Section 5 REASONS WHY PARTIES HAVE FEWER MEMBERS More people say they are INDEPENDENTS vs. Rep/Dem 2. Voters report more SPLIT-TICKET voting vote for candidates of different parties in same election 3. Structural changes and reforms i.e. Reform of campaign finance and direct primary elections have caused members to disagree. 4. Candidates don’t rely on party as much b/c of technology changes such as media and internet 5. More voters have stronger ties to single-issue groups

18 1. What were the first two political parties that the US had?
Which political party dominated? 3. There are 4 major eras regarding political parties. The first era had the Democratic-Republican unopposed. In the mid 1820's they split into factions. What were the names of these two parties? 4. The Jacksonian democracy produced 3 major changes in the nations politics. NAME THEM. 5. Teddy Roosevelt denied the nomination of the Republican party and did what? 6. What political party dominated during the Great Depression? Who was President? 7. What is sectionalism?

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