Presentation on theme: "Link between people & their gov’t"— Presentation transcript:
1Link between people & their gov’t Chapter 5Section 1Political Party - group of persons who seek to control gov’t by winning elections and holding officeUS 2 MAJOR POLITICAL PARTIES - Republican and DemocratEach party is a COALITION = union of many persons of diverse interests who join together to get candidate elected to public office.Parties are mechanisms that:1. develop broad policy2. develop leadership choices3. present options to peopleLink between people & their gov’tParties bring: conflicting groups togethermodify and compromise contending viewsunify people
25 MAJOR FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY PARTIES 1. NOMINATING FUNCTION Chapter 5Section 15 MAJOR FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY PARTIES1. NOMINATING FUNCTIONName candidates for officegather support for candidate2. INFORMER-STIMULATOR FUNCTIONParties educate people and get them excited in their interest and participation in public affairsOther groups – Media and Interest GroupsThey CAMPAIGNtake stand on issuescriticize candidates and position of opponentThey INFORM PEOPLE (to parties advantage)Ex. educating by: pamphlets, signs, buttons, stickers, ads,radio, TV, speeches, rallies, conventions - INTERNET.
35 MAJOR FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY PARTIES Chapter 5Section 15 MAJOR FUNCTIONS PERFORMED BY PARTIES3. “SEAL OF APPROVAL” FUNCTIONParty approves candidateChoosing one that is qualified and of good character and perform duties well4. GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONUS described as gov’t by party(Those who govern are chosen by party)Parties also provide a basis for the conduct of gov’tUnder separation of powers, party is major agent throughwhich executive and legislative branches cooperate with each other.5. WATCH DOG FUNCTIONParties act as watchdogs over the conduct of the public’s business. This is the particular function of party OUT OF OFFICE or powerCriticizes policies and behavior of party in power
4Section 2 – Two Party System Chapter 5Section 2 – Two Party SystemMinor party - less supported in political systemUS has a 2 party system = Republican/ Democrat4 FACTORS EXPLAIN WHY US HAS AND CONTINUES TO HAVE A 2 PARTY SYSTEM1. HISTORICAL BASIS - Framers opposed partiesBegan when nation started: Federalist/ Anti-FederalistsBecame country’s 1st 2 party in the debate over ratification (Federalists papers)2. FORCE OF TRADITIONMost Americans accept 2 party system b/c always has been that wayMinor parties have a little headway.
5Section 2 – Two Party System Chapter 5Section 2 – Two Party System3. ELECTORAL SYSTEMPromote 2 party systemSingle member district preserve 2 party systemState elections laws are deliberately written to discourage minor parties.WINNER TAKES ALL ELECTIONPLURALITY = largest number of votesPlurality need NOT be majority4. AMERICAN IDEOLOGICAL CONSENSUSUS is a pluralistic society (several distinct cultures and groups)Americans tend to agree on fundamental issues = CONSENSUSAmerican’s major political parties tend to take MODERATE stand in order to attract the largest possible number of votes.
6MULTIPARTY SYSTEM - exist mostly in Europe Chapter 5Section 2MULTIPARTY SYSTEM - exist mostly in EuropeParties represent a wide variety of : class, religion, and political interestsEach parties representation in legislation depends on the number of votes received. ex. 15% of votes = 15% of legislative seatsOften making government unstableTo reduce number of parties, countries passed a law requiring minimum % of votes before gaining representationex. Germany& Greece 5%In America, institutional and ideological factors make multiparty system unlikely.ONE PARTY SYSTEM - DictatorshipTraditionally in US - many areas were dominated by 1 party. ex. Delaware, OH = Republicans2 party competition is spreading.
7Chapter 5Section 2MEMBERSHIP OF THE PARTIES - Membership is voluntary and is composed of cross-section of populationSome Segments of electorate that tend to support 1 party or the otherTraditionally, minority groups are Democrats and white males, Protestant, and business community are Republicans (GOP)Major events that influence party choice1. Family - allegiance, tradition2. Economic statusHigher income usually Republican3. Major Events4. Age5. Residence6. Education level7. Work Environment
8Section 3 ERAS OF ONE-PARTY DOMINATION 1. 1800-1860 - DEMOCRATS Chapter 5Section 3ERAS OF ONE-PARTY DOMINATIONDEMOCRATSCoalition of farmers, planters, pioneersREPUBLICANSSupported by Northern & Western farmersFinancial & business interestsControlled the Solid SouthDEMOCRATSDepression - got support of Southerners, small farmers, organized labor, minorities, big-city political organizations4. SINCE Republicans dominated White HouseDemocrats controlled Congress etc.
9Chapter 5Section 4Ideological party - based on certain social, economic, or political ideas; differ from majority of populationex. Socialist - favored gov’t takeover of industryCommunistLibertarian - promotes individual rights, less gov’t in private lives and opposes taxes and US invasion abroadSingle-issue parties - based on ONE ISSUE.Fade away after issue has been resolved or people lose interest. Sometimes able to get one of the major parties to take on their issue.ex. Free soil - opposed slaveryKnow Nothings - opposed Irish-Catholic immigrationRight to Life - opposed abortionProhibition party - prohibition of mfg, sales, and distribution of alcohol
10Chapter 5Section 4Economic protest parties - appear during difficult financial times. Appeal to people who are angry with economy.People want better prices and wages and lower taxes.Ex. Greenback - appealed to farmers; fee coinage of silver, fed reg ofthe railroads, income tax, labor legislationEx. Populist party - demanded public ownership of RR, telephone, andtelegraph companies, lower tariffs, and adoption of initiative andreferendumInitiative - people introduce a bill in Congress and State by petitionReferendum - allow people to vote on bills after passed by legislatureSplinter parties - split from major parties; when the leader steps aside the party fadesEx. Bull Moose Party - Progressive party - Theodore RooseveltEx. DixiecratEx. American Independent Party - George Wallace
11Major Characteristics of a MINOR PARTY in American Politics: Chapter 5Section 4Major Characteristics of a MINOR PARTY in American Politics:Short-livedBased on a single issueFormed around a strong personality3rd PartiesProgressives - Roosevelt - didn’t win election but took votes away from Rep - Taft and Dem - WilsonRoss Perot - Independent, won 19% of vote; contributed to Bush losing b/c most REP voted for Perot. He spent $60 mill of his own moneyPerot ran with the REFORM Party = balancing federal budget, reforming political campaign funding, established term limits for members of Congress, new tax system, restrictions on lobbying gov’t officialsPerot was able to receive federal funds = $29 mill; The REP/DEM received $62 mill
12Chapter 5Section 5Major American political parties have DECENTRALIZED STRUCTUREQuestion: How does decentralization affect relationships among different levels of government?Main Reasons:1. FEDERALISM - divided 3 levels of government; more than ½ million elected officials2. NOMINATING PROCESS - intraparty process - within party; process divisive one, same members of party disagree and fight over nomination3. PRESIDENT - no leader; party not in power is more decentralizedParty Players1. Party members in Organization = Leaders, Activists2. Party Members through gov’t = Office Holders at all levels of gov’t3. Party in the Electorate = voters = Voter who votes straight party ticket or its candidates
13Section 5 President acts as PARTY LEADER. He unites the party through: Chapter 5Section 5President acts as PARTY LEADER. He unites the party through:PopularityAccess to MediaPeople appoints for gov’t jobs2 LEVEL PARTY STRUCTURE1. National 2. StateMAJOR PARTY HAS 4 POINTS OF ORGANIZATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL1. NATIONAL CONVENTIONmeets every 4 yearsnominates President/Vice Presidentadopts party’s rules and writes platform2. NATIONAL COMMITTEEconsists of party leaders from every StatePlans National Conventions
14Section 5 MAJOR PARTY HAS 4 POINTS OF ORGANIZATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL Chapter 5Section 5MAJOR PARTY HAS 4 POINTS OF ORGANIZATION AT NATIONAL LEVEL3. NATIONAL CHAIRPERSONappointed by party’s nominee for PresidentHeads National Committee4. CONGRESSIONAL CAMPAIGN COMMITTEES - Pg. 139Each party has a campaign committee in EACH HOUSEcommittees work to REELECT INCUMBENTS and save seats of those retiringmembers of committee are chosen by their colleagues
15Chapter 5Section 5STATE LEVEL - State Party Chairman leads STATE central committee and runs party’s activities within State and further the party’s interest in stateLOCAL LEVEL - Varies because of STATE ELECTION LAWSex. City council memberParty is divides city into small units = WARDSWARDS are divided further into = PRECINCTSVoters of precinct go to same voting place (p. 140)LOCAL PARTIESPOLITICAL MACHINE - organized group of individuals who dominate a political party within a geographic area (big city)Uses party’s resources to further own power and control over political systemEx. Tammany Hall – NYC; Gain support by Political Machine assigned small armies of workers to become familiar with residents in neighborhoods.
16Chapter 5Section 5On election day - workers urged supporters to go to poll - promised them gov’t jobs if party won = PATRONAGE = SPOILS SYSTEMLocal Party CorruptionLocal party would print ballots with list of only their candidatesVoters forced to cast STRAIGHT TICKETPolitical machine engaged in illegal voting practicesNo voter registration“Vote early and vote often”Elected official support and loyaltyLocal party organization in charge of nominating candidatesHow things became legal:*1. New Ballot System - printed by government*2. Voter Registration started*3. Pendleton ACT – MERIT SYSTEM = gov’t job is given by qualification and examination ; Spoils system - ILLEGAL
17REASONS WHY PARTIES HAVE FEWER MEMBERS Chapter 5Section 5REASONS WHY PARTIES HAVE FEWER MEMBERSMore people say they are INDEPENDENTS vs. Rep/Dem2. Voters report more SPLIT-TICKET votingvote for candidates of different parties in same election3. Structural changes and reformsi.e. Reform of campaign finance and direct primary elections have caused members to disagree.4. Candidates don’t rely on party as much b/c of technology changes such as media and internet5. More voters have stronger ties to single-issue groups
181. What were the first two political parties that the US had? Which political party dominated?3. There are 4 major eras regarding political parties. The first era had the Democratic-Republican unopposed. In the mid 1820's they split into factions.What were the names of these two parties?4. The Jacksonian democracy produced 3 major changes in the nations politics. NAME THEM.5. Teddy Roosevelt denied the nomination of the Republican party and did what?6. What political party dominated during the Great Depression? Who was President?7. What is sectionalism?