2How they differ from Interest Groups/Factions Þ What is a Political Party?A group of political activists who organize to win elections, to operate the government, and to determine public policy.How they differ from Interest Groups/Factions·Interest groups do not want to operate government·Interest groups tend to sharpen issues, whereas political parties tend to blur their issue·From factions, which are smaller groups that are trying to obtain certain benefits for themselves.·Factions are subgroups within parties·Biggest Diff. is that factions do not have a permanent organization, political parties do.
3Goals of Political Parties 1. Organize the elections2. Unify the Electorate3. Organize the Gov't4. Policy making5. Provide Loyal Oppositionaka Honeymoon6. Recruit Voters/Candidates·Elect people to office.·Gain control of government.
4Nomination Process Caucus *Crossover Voting A meeting or gathering of members of a political party where members deliberate and choose from the list of those seeking the presidential nomination.Differs State 2 State:Who can runCan the party endorse beforeWho can voteVotes NeededCaucus*Crossover VotingVoting for a candidate for another partyNomination ProcessPrimariesDirectOpen/ClosedMost common way to nominate candidatesCaucuses are still used in which local party members run for office
5SuperdelegatesA super-delegate is a leader in the National Democratic Party who has a vote at the national convention; they are not selected by state party members.How do superdelegates influence the power of party leaders?• Party leaders are now assured a role in the nomination process, regardless of which candidate they support.• Party leaders can cast the deciding vote in close nomination contests.• Superdelegates are unpledged and therefore can change their minds on candidates as the process unfolds.
6Why campaign strategies often differ between primary and general elections? • The electorate in the primary election is different from the electorate in the general election.• A candidate’s opponents in the primary are fellow partisans, whereas opponents in the general election are from other parties.• There are differences in financing, media coverage and current events leading up to the general election.
7History of Political Parties The creation of parties, fromThe first partisan division in the U.S. occurred prior to the adoption of the Constitution.·The Federalists – pushed for adoption of the Constitution·The Anti-Federalists – were against ratificationJefferson and others who were against the Feds formed the Democratic-Republican Party but now known as the Democrats
8History of Political Parties Realigning Elections1824 Andrew Jackson and the Democratic PartyAll Candidates were from the same party but represented sectional interests(John Q. Adams, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, and William Harris Crawford)Because of factions within the Demo/Rep Party no one candidate obtained 131 electoral votesAdams vs. Jackson - Adams wins causing a split in the Demo/Rep Party and the Democratic Party is born
10Realignment Election of 1860 Birth of the Republicans Whig Party had collapsed in 1852Slavery was dividing the U.S.North vs. SouthLincoln won with a plurality§Post Civil War, South became Democratic (the Solid South) and the North became Republicans.§The Republicans control was solidified by winning over the urban working-class vote in northern cities.§This was an era of Republican dominance.
11Presidential election of 1896, William McKinley Exactly how much realignment took place in this election is debated. This election marks the end of the Civil War Era as new issues took the place of those that defined the Civil War period. Also, McKinley, in defeating William Jennings Bryan, began to use campaign methods that have come to define the modern era, including raising big money from business (McKinley outspent Bryan 10 to 1) and campaigning in hotly contested states (swing states). Bryan also struck a theme of “populism” which has come to characterize the Democratic party ever since. McKinley was re-elected in 1900.
12The Republican split allowed Wilson to win the presidency. Realigning Elections1912 Election§In 1912, A schism in the Republican PartyFormer Republican president Teddy Roosevelt campaigned for the presidency as a Progressive. (Bull Moose Party)§Three candidates: Woodrow Wilson (Democrat), William Howard Taft (Republican) and Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive).The Republican split allowed Wilson to win the presidency.Republicans dominated until Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932; Democrat)was elected
13Realigning Elections FDR won the 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944 Elections "The Modern Period"FDR won the 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944 ElectionsNew Deal that he crafted is still with us.Nat'l Gov't regulating and promoting our economy still an issue between the two parties todayNew Deal Coalition
14RealignmentMajor shift of philosophy within a party and marks a major change in a party's ideology (usually happens after a critical election.)FDR's (D) New Deal supported by city dwellers, blue collar workers, labor unions, the poor, Catholics, Jews, the South, and Af. AmericansCoalition of N. Liberals and S. Conservatives held most of the control of the W.H. and Congress until 1968New Deal encouraged larger government influence in social programs. (Democratic Platform)
15Realignment·“Gridlock” – Congress and Presidency controlled by different parties· Republican sweep of Congress and Presidency - party loyalty stronger?· split the Presidency and Congress again·2008 – Democratic sweep·2010 – Republicans take back Congress· ???
16De-alignmentIf alignment is the shift in party eras, then people gradually moving away from their party based on ideology is de-alignmentExample of this would be Southern Democrats converting to the Republican Party because of the R's more conservative stance.
17Since 1953 Period of Divided Government (Modern Era) Reagan (R): Party controls the White House but loses control of CongressVietnam brought the Reps back into power (6/8 Pres)Reagan (R):Pulled support from middle class DemocratsClinton (D): Had Democratic majority but between '92 and '96 terms fought ideological battleLiberals, moderates, and conservatives who did not vote on party lines
18Party Systems Two Party System Two major parties that dominate electionsMust remain moderate when making and implementing policies (Something a multiparty doesn't necessarily have to do.)Minor parties exist usually running on a specific ideologyCommunist, Prohibition, Libertarian, Green Parties etc.Minor parties may not win but can cause a split in voters for a partyEx) Ted Roosevelt won 88 Electoral Votes allowing W. Wilson to win
19Third Parties have played a role in politics Types·Individual personality – those dominated by one figure head(Ex. – 1912 Theodore Roosevelt –Bull- Moose)(1968 George Wallace – American Independent Party)·Long-lasting goal or ideology – (Ex. – Abolitionists, Prohibitionists, Socialists)·Has many obstacles to over come No access to debates, funding, winner-take-all system, etc.
20Why do we have a two Party System The foundations of the systemFed vs. Anti-Fed started it allSectional Politics (North vs. South)The longevity of the partiesTwo parties have lasted throughout time due to parent/child socializationThe Common views among AmericansPrivate property, individual prosperity, religious backgrounds, economicsThe winner-take-all electoral systemOutcome of elections is based on the pluralityWinner of the most votes in a state, gets all the electoral votes in that state. (Opposite Proportional representation)Some hold run-off elections until a candidate obtains at least one vote over 50% of the votes.State and federal laws favoring the two-party systemThe Federal Election Commission (FEC) rules for campaign financing also place restrictions on minor-party candidates.Why do we have a two Party System
21Consequences of a winner-take-all system • Shortens the timeframe for candidates wrapping up the nomination.• Affects strategic decisions (e.g., allocation of funds, time).• Advantages those with more prominence or better name recognition early in the process.
22Township Chair and Committee County Chair and Committee Party OrganizationProvides structure and framework to recruit membersParty PlatformJobs in PartyoCampaign consultantsoFundraisersoLocal, state, and national executivesoNational staff membersTownship Chair and CommitteeCounty Chair and CommitteeState Chair and CommitteeNational Convention/DelegatesNat'l Chair and Nat'l Committee
231. Parties in the Electorate Parties Today1. Parties in the Electorate2. In Government3. Institutions4. Party IdentificationParty-in-the-ElectorateParty Registration: Limit participates in primaries to members of that party and make it easier to contact voters that might vote for their party.Party Regulars: Place the party firstCandidate Activists: Followers of a particular candidate and are not concerned with party operationsEx. Followers of Ron PaulIssue Activists: Wish to push their party towards particular issues and hold the platform with extreme importance.
24Parties as Institutions National Party LeadershipThe supreme authority of parties is party convention.National Committee is in charge when party is not in conventionNational Chair is top official but in reality is the choice of the president/presidential nominee.Job of convention is to nominate Pres and VP of U.S.Party PlatformsEvery four years adopt a new platform which is the official statement of party policyVague but spells out the most important valuesParties at State and Local LevelsStructured much like national levelLocal levels try to get party members into elected positions like sheriff, commissioner and treasurer
25Parties Today 1. Institutions Party in Gov't Party Organization Party in ElectorateParty in Gov'tParty OrganizationParty Role in GovernmentLegislative: Partisanship very serious; Partisanship can help unify the two houses. All employees must be partisan to one party or the other;Executive: POTUS selects nearly all senior White House staff and cabinet members from own party (Sec. of State, Defense, Treasury, etc.)Party loyalty by all officials is essentialPres. do give one or two positions to opposite party (Bipartenship)Judicial: Supposed to be nonpartisan; Life time tenure; Do not sit together by party like Congress; Marbury v. Madison concerned the efforts to "stack" the judiciary before leaving office; Party identification is still important in the nomination of federal judgesParties Today1. Institutions2. In Government3. Parties in the Electorate4. Party Identification
26As of 2000 plurality of voters labeled themselves as Independent 7 Types of IdentificationStrong DemWeak DemIndependent-leaning DemocratPure IndependentIndependent-leaning RepublicansWeak RepublicansStrong RepublicansParty Identification: Psychological attachment to a party that most people acquire from childhoodParty ID is decliningAs of 2000 plurality of voters labeled themselves as Independent
28Two Party System Summary Party in ElectorateParty in Gov'tParty OrganizationTwo Party System SummaryParty Functions·Nominate candidates·Run successful campaigns·Develop positive image·Articulate issues so the electorate (the people) identify with the party or candidate·Implementing party policies in gov't·Watchdog
29How Parties Raise and Spend Money Parties rely on money raised by fundraising, individual and interest groups contributions.Soft Money vs. Hard MoneyInterest Groups and PACs are limited by the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)PACs are more likely to give to candidates than partiesBipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) regulates soft money as unrestricted almost banned it entirely
30How Parties Raise and Spend Money Party Expenditures: Party committees can make contributions to candidates with limited money and use this in competitive elections.Party-independent Expenditures: Parties can spend unlimited money for and against a person as long as it's independent from that candidate/party
31Are the Political Parties Dying? 1. Do you think parties do not take a meaningful and contrasting stand on most issues?2. Do you feel that party membership is essentially meaningless?3. Do you feel that parties are so concerned with accommodating the middle of the ideological spectrum that they are not capable of passing legislation for social progress?
32Are the Political Parties Dying? Reform Among Democrats1968: Due to uneasiness about Vietnam made reformsUsed direct primaries more for selection of Ds to the DNCGreater representation of younger voters, women, and minoritiesAbolition of the winner-take-all rule (Proportionate representation)2008: Neither Obama nor Clinton had enough delegates to clinch thus resulting in superdelegates playing a key role in electing Obama
33Are the Political Parties Dying? Reform Among RepublicansMore control over presidential campaigns by National CommitteeEncourage participation from women, minorities, poor, and youthAlways been better organized than Democratic PartyTend to raise more funds from donors than Dems with the exception of 2010 Election cycleHas been the minority party consistently between the late 1960sto mid-1990s in the House of Representatives