4Problems of sectional balance in 1849 Compromise of 1850Problems of sectional balance in 1849California – Gold RushFugitive slavesAttempts at compromiseHenry ClayZachary Taylor/Millard A. FillmoreStephen A. DouglasCompromise of 18501) California2) Remainder of Mexican Cession3) Fugitive slaves4) Slave trade in D.C.Henry Clay Presenting his compromise of 1850 in the SenateDescription: Henry Clay (presenting his compromise), Millard Fillmore (presiding), John C. Calhoun (right of Fillmore), and Daniel Webster (head in hand) in the Senate, By Peter Rothermel. (Clay)(Douglas)Stephen A. Douglas
5Compromise of 1850Signaled End of Period of Political Leaders Seeking National InterestClay – tired, disappointed after his national compromise bill defeatedJohn C. Calhoun – had sought compromise bill that heavily favored the South; would never have passed, but still seeking national compromise; died before passage of CompromiseDaniel Webster – left Congress for diplomatic post in course of debateReplaced by Leaders with personal or sectional interests: Douglas, Seward, J.Davis
6RESPONSES TO THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 Old national leadership:(Clay, Webster, Calhoun)Northern opposition to Fugitive Slave ActGrowth of Free-Soil Party (founded 1848)Whig Party?Personal Liberty LawsAbleman v. Booth (1857)“Young America”Ostend Manifesto (1854)Gadsden Purchase (1853)
7Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War Abraham Lincoln
8Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Sold 300,000 copies in the first year. 2 million in a decade!
9KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT & the Emergence of the Republican Party
11“The Crime Against Kansas” Douglas (who was present in the chamber) was a "noise-some, squat, and nameless animal...not a proper model for an American senator." Butler was a pimp who took "a mistress who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean, the harlot, Slavery."Pojer; Brooks:Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA)Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC)
12“Bleeding Kansas” John Brown Pottawatomie Massacre (1856) Pageant 12e via Pojer“Bleeding Kansas” ( )John BrownPottawatomie Massacre (1856)Lecompton Constitution (1857)Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)
14The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party] Nativists.Anti-Catholics.Anti-immigrants.1849 Secret Order of the Star-Spangled Banner created in NYC.
15Birth of the Republican Party, 1854 Northern Whigs.Northern Democrats.Free-Soilers.Know-Nothings.Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
16Republican Party Platform in 1860 Non-extension of slavery [for the Free-Soilers.Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].
18PRO- AND ANTISLAVERY CONFLICTS Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted.Slavery & the Territories“gag rule”Wilmot Proviso ( )Rep. David Wilmot (D-PA)
19PRO- & ANTISLAVERY ARGUMENTS Sectional Controversy Hardened Attitudes:South - “positive good” thesisGood for slaves, southern society, the U.S.North – Free Labor ideologySlavery is bad for white AmericansAmerican democracy=property, opportunity for advancement“free soil”“slave power conspiracy”
23Dred Scott Decision (1857) Dred Scott v. Sandford Slaves were property, not citizens, even if taken to free statesResult: U.S. govern-ment prohibited from limiting the spread of slavery in territories
27John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, Oct. 16, 1859 John Brown and 21 men attacked the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA to ob-tain guns for a slave rebellion
28Reactions to John Brown’s Raid Northern abolitionists made Brown into a martyr- but most didn’t like him, including LincolnSoutherners were terrified that other abolitionists would incite slave rebellions
29John Brown: Martyr or Madman? Description: John Brown. Ca Copy of a daguerrotype. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration;Description: "The Tradgic Prelude. John Brown." Copy of mural by John Steuart Curry in the State Capital of Topeka, KS, ca Credit: National Archives and Records AdministrationJohn Brown ca. 1850“The Tragic Prelude (John Brown)”
34For the South Lincoln’s election was the final straw – they were convinced he intended toabolish slavery.That was not his intent, ratherhe saw slavery as a moral issueand that it should not be allowed to spread. ( Southern states wouldnot have had to give up slavery.)
40Ft. SumterBoston Evening Transcript, April 13, 1861
41SourcesUncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia -Harriet Beecher Stowe Center -PBS “Africans in America” -Lincoln/Net, Northern Illinois University -Brinkley 10th edSusan M. Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NYAmerican Pageant, 13th ed.Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd ed.