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Causes of the Civil War- The Crisis of the Union 1848-1860.

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Presentation on theme: "Causes of the Civil War- The Crisis of the Union 1848-1860."— Presentation transcript:

1 Causes of the Civil War- The Crisis of the Union

2 Problems of Sectional Balance in 1850  California statehood.  Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.  Underground RR & fugitive slave issues:  Personal liberty laws  Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)  California statehood.  Southern “fire-eaters” threatening secession.  Underground RR & fugitive slave issues:  Personal liberty laws  Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)

3 COMPROMISE OF 1850

4 Compromise of 1850 Problems of sectional balance in 1849 – California – Gold Rush – Fugitive slaves Attempts at compromise – Henry Clay – Zachary Taylor/Millard A. Fillmore – Stephen A. Douglas Compromise of )California 2)Remainder of Mexican Cession 3) Fugitive slaves 4)Slave trade in D.C. Henry Clay Presenting his compromise of 1850 in the Senate Stephen A. Douglas

5 Compromise of 1850 Signaled End of Period of Political Leaders Seeking National Interest  Clay – tired, disappointed after his national compromise bill defeated  John C. Calhoun – had sought compromise bill that heavily favored the South; would never have passed, but still seeking national compromise; died before passage of Compromise  Daniel Webster – left Congress for diplomatic post in course of debate  Replaced by Leaders with personal or sectional interests: Douglas, Seward, J.Davis

6 RESPONSES TO THE COMPROMISE OF 1850 Old national leadership: (Clay, Webster, Calhoun) Northern opposition to Fugitive Slave Act Growth of Free-Soil Party (founded 1848)  Whig Party? Personal Liberty Laws Ableman v. Booth (1857) “Young America”  Ostend Manifesto (1854) Gadsden Purchase (1853)

7 Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 – 1896) So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln So this is the lady who started the Civil War. -- Abraham Lincoln

8 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!  Sold 300,000 copies in the first year.  2 million in a decade!

9 KANSAS- NEBRASKA ACT & the Emergence of the Republican Party

10 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

11 “The Crime Against Kansas” Sen. Charles Sumner (R-MA) Congr. Preston Brooks (D-SC) Douglas (who was present in the chamber) was a "noise-some, squat, and nameless animal...not a proper model for an American senator." Butler was a pimp who took "a mistress who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean, the harlot, Slavery."

12 “Bleeding Kansas” Border “Ruffians” (pro-slavery Missourians)  “Bleeding Kansas” ( )  John Brown  Pottawatomie Massacre (1856)  Lecompton Constitution (1857)

13 Political Parties

14 The “Know-Nothings” [The American Party]  Nativists.  Anti- Catholics.  Anti- immigrants.  Nativists.  Anti- Catholics.  Anti- immigrants  Secret Order of the Star- Spangled Banner created in NYC.

15 Birth of the Republican Party, 1854  Northern Whigs.  Northern Democrats.  Free-Soilers.  Know-Nothings.  Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas- Nebraska Act.  Northern Whigs.  Northern Democrats.  Free-Soilers.  Know-Nothings.  Other miscellaneous opponents of the Kansas- Nebraska Act.

16 Republican Party Platform in 1860  Non-extension of slavery [for the Free- Soilers.  Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].  No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].  Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].  Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.  Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].  Non-extension of slavery [for the Free- Soilers.  Protective tariff [for the No. Industrialists].  No abridgment of rights for immigrants [a disappointment for the “Know-Nothings”].  Government aid to build a Pacific RR [for the Northwest].  Internal improvements [for the West] at federal expense.  Free homesteads for the public domain [for farmers].

17 A. PRO- AND ANTISLAVERY ARGUMENTS AND CONFLICTS

18 PRO- AND ANTISLAVERY CONFLICTS Slavery & the Territories “gag rule” “gag rule” Wilmot Proviso ( ) Wilmot Proviso ( ) Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Provided, territory from that, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any the Republic of Mexico by the United States, States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted. Rep. David Wilmot (D-PA)

19 PRO- & ANTISLAVERY ARGUMENTS Sectional Controversy Hardened Attitudes: Sectional Controversy Hardened Attitudes: South - “positive good” thesis South - “positive good” thesis Good for slaves, southern society, the U.S.Good for slaves, southern society, the U.S. North – Free Labor ideology North – Free Labor ideology Slavery is bad for white AmericansSlavery is bad for white Americans American democracy=property, opportunity for advancementAmerican democracy=property, opportunity for advancement “free soil”“free soil” “slave power conspiracy”“slave power conspiracy”

20 Free and slave states and territories, 1848

21 1856 Election Results

22 DRED SCOTT DECISION

23 Dred Scott Decision (1857) Dred Scott v. Sandford Dred Scott v. Sandford Slaves were property, not citizens, even if taken to free states Slaves were property, not citizens, even if taken to free states Result: U.S. govern- ment prohibited from limiting the spread of slavery in territories Result: U.S. govern- ment prohibited from limiting the spread of slavery in territories

24 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry

25 John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, 1859

26

27 John Brown ’ s Raid on Harper ’ s Ferry, Oct. 16, 1859 John Brown and 21 men attacked the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, VA to ob- tain guns for a slave rebellion

28 Reactions to John Brown’s Raid Northern abolitionists made Brown into a martyr- but most didn’t like him, including Lincoln Northern abolitionists made Brown into a martyr- but most didn’t like him, including Lincoln Southerners were terrified that other abolitionists would incite slave rebellions Southerners were terrified that other abolitionists would incite slave rebellions

29 John Brown: Martyr or Madman? John Brown ca “The Tragic Prelude (John Brown)”

30 Election of 1860

31 1860 Presidential Election √ Abraham Lincoln Republican John Bell Constitutional Union Stephen A. Douglas Northern Democrat John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat

32 1860 Election Results 1860 Election Results

33 Election of 1860

34

35 Secession

36 Secession!: SC  Dec. 20, 1860

37 The Process of Secession,

38 Flyer from South Carolina announcing secession

39 Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861

40 Ft. Sumter Boston Evening Transcript, April 13, 1861

41 Sources Uncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia - Uncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia - Harriet Beecher Stowe Center - Harriet Beecher Stowe Center - PBS “Africans in America” - PBS “Africans in America” - Lincoln/Net, Northern Illinois University - Lincoln/Net, Northern Illinois University - Brinkley 10 th ed Brinkley 10 th ed Susan M. Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY Susan M. Pojer, Horace Greeley H.S., Chappaqua, NY American Pageant, 13 th ed. American Pageant, 13 th ed. Faragher, Out of Many, 3 rd ed. Faragher, Out of Many, 3 rd ed.


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