Increase in Enfranchisement Voting before the 1820s = white male property owners or taxpayers Voting after 1820 = all white males 1.New states entering the Union included the new voting requirements in their state’s constitution 2. Older states changed their voting laws to hopefully prevent citizens from leaving their states and moving westward
Conservatives Resist ConservativesForces of Democratization No better is this resistance to democratization illustrated than the Dorr Rebellion Important Facts: 1.Rhode Island 2.Thomas L. Dorr 3.“People’s Party” 4.Old vs. New State Gov’t 5.Rebellion failed but forced changes
Second Party System Emerges Ideological commitment Party system was closed off to the elite Parties were set on destroying the other Federalists vs. Republicans The idea of party needed to be institutionalized The population at large needed to participate Preservation of party through loyalty and favors was most important Permanent opposition was key to a party’s survival Whigs vs. Democrats
Democracy Increased or Limited? “We need to expand the opportunities to the rising classes of the West and South.” “Let’s first target the entrenched federal officeholders and open those positions to everyone.” Jackson was sometimes referred to as the “President of the Common Man” Lead to…
Democracy Increased or Limited? “”We need to make the process of how Presidential candidates are chosen more democratic.” “My supporters tell me that national party conventions will give more power to the people.” Jackson was sometimes referred to as the “President of the Common Man” Some feel this lead to…
Jackson’s Goal Reduce the power of the National Government While at the same time… Assert the supremacy of the Union
Jackson’s Administration John C. Calhoun From South Carolina Jackson’s Vice President Stirred up trouble with Theory of Nullification Further isolated himself as a result of the Peggy Eaton Affair Martin Van Buren From New York Jackson’s Secretary of State Member of Jackson’s official as well his “Kitchen Cabinet” Accepted Peggy Eaton and became Jackson’s successor John H. Eaton From Tennessee Jackson’s Secretary of War Married Peggy Eaton which stirred up the political world of Washington
A Line is Drawn An argument between the sale of Western lands quickly morphed into a debate between States’ Rights versus National Power (Webster – Hayne Debate) “Our Federal Union…It must be preserved.” “The Union, next to our liberty most dear.” A very important toast…
The Nullification Crisis South Carolina was furious over the 1828 “tariff of abominations” When the a new tariff was passed in 1832, S.C. called a convention and nullified the tariffs Jackson insisted nullification was treason A.J. proposed a force bill authorizing the president to use the military to ensure acts of Congress were obeyed Violence was averted thanks to Henry Clay’s Compromise The tariff would be lowered gradually Jackson signed both the compromise and the force bill; S.C. repealed the nullification of the tariffs but nullified the force act
Discussion Question(s): Was nullification a success? What did it prove?
Attitudes Shift MMMM… LAND White Americans White Americans craved more territory Native Americans were seen as an obstacle for whites desiring to move West The Marshall Court gave the federal government the authority to negotiate with the tribes over land The Black Hawk War showed the horrific lengths white Americans were willing to go to expel Indians from the western lands
Removing the “Five Civilized Tribes” These states were becoming impatient with the delay of removing the agrarian tribes from their lands The federal government assisted by passing the Removal Act The Removal Act Appropriated money to finance federal negotiations with the southern tribes aimed at relocating them to the West
Trail of Tears Treaty with the Cherokees Georgia would get the tribe’s land Cherokee received $5 million and a reservation west of the Mississippi River Several Indians refused to go and as a result, Andrew Jackson sent in 7,000 troops under General Winfield Scott to force them out The result was the “Trail of Tears”, which resulted in the deaths of thousands of Native Americans Now the Native Americans are “beyond the reach of injury or oppression”
Discussion Questions: Were there any alternatives to the removal of the Native Americans? If not, why do you think? If so, could they have worked?
Jackson and the Bank War Jackson The Bank of the U.S.
Nicholas Biddle President of the Second Bank of the United States and made it prosperous
Opposition to the Second B.U.S. “Soft – Money” Advocates Wanted more currency in circulation – meaning they wanted more bank notes (not backed by gold or silver) to be issued Stated the B.U.S. restrained state banks from issuing notes freely “Hard – Money” Advocates Believed gold and silver were the only basis for money Condemned all banks who issued bank notes Were suspicious of expansion Believed in rapid economic growth
Battle for the Bank JACKSON BIDDLE VS. ROUND 1 Stated he would not favor the renewing of the Bank’s charter when it expired in 1836 Was influenced by Henry Clay & Daniel Webster to apply to Congress in 1832 for the Bank’s renewal It would force the Bank to become a major issue in the 1832 election Congress rechartered the Bank As expected, Jackson vetoed the bill; Congress was unable to overturn the veto
ROUND 2: The Knockout Punch Jackson could not abolish the bank He attempted other means to destroy the “monster” I can’t wait until 1836 for that “Monster” Bank to expire!! Remove all the government’s deposits Sec. of Treasury – Louis McLane Ummm President Jackson, I am pretty sure that will destabilize the financial system so I can’t do that.
ROUND 2: The Knockout Punch Jackson could not abolish the bank He attempted other means to destroy the “monster” YOU’RE FIRED!!!!! Sec. of Treasury – Louis McLane
ROUND 2: The Knockout Punch Jackson could not abolish the bank He attempted other means to destroy the “monster” Congrats on the new position…by the way I want you to remove all the government’s deposits from the Bank of the U.S. New Sec. of Treasury – William Duane Ummm President Jackson, I really can’t do that. It would be bad.
ROUND 2: The Knockout Punch Jackson could not abolish the bank He attempted other means to destroy the “monster” YOU’RE FIRED!!!!! New Sec. of Treasury – William Duane
ROUND 2: The Knockout Punch Jackson could not abolish the bank He attempted other means to destroy the “monster” Attorney General Taney, my good friend and ally congrats on the new position in my cabinet…now about removing those government deposits??? New Sec. of Treasury – Roger Taney You got it A.J.!!!!!
One Last Effort by Biddle Ok Jackson…I’m not going away so easy. With the government’s deposits being removed to “pet banks”, Biddle called in loans This caused financial distress People went to Jackson for help but he stood firm and told them to “Go to Biddle” Biddle relented and due to his unpopular tactics lost support for rechartering the Bank
Goodbye Marshall; Hello Taney When John Marshall died in 1835, Jackson appointed his friend Roger B. Taney as the new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court This caused a shift from the previous ultra-nationalistic rulings during the Marshall Court Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) Impact / Ruling: placed restrictions on the ability of state gov’ts to control corporations Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837) Impact / Ruling: supported Massachusetts right to issue the second charter SHIFT
“The object of government was to promote the general happiness, an object that took precedence over the rights of contract and property.”
Emphasis on Opportunity Defend the Union Rallied behind Jackson Economic Union Fearful of rapid Territorial growth Embraced industry as the future of the country Loyalties divided among the “Great Triumvirate” Supported Jackson’s choice, Martin Van Buren, in the 1836 election Anti-Masons
Martin Van Buren Thanks for your support A.J.!!!!!!!!!!! Van B Boys
What did Van Buren inherit?? The federal government was selling Western lands in great amounts Speculators bought land in such bulk that the federal government paid off their debt and even had a surplus A. Hamilton NOOOOOOO!!!!!!!! Give it to the states – The Distribution Act There was a nationwide economic boom
I loathe Paper currency!!!!!!!!! Before leaving office, A.J. issued a presidential order, the “specie circular” Only gold or silver coins for payment for public lands A.J. thought it would curb land speculation Led to the Panic of 1837
Panic of 1837 Worst depression in the U.S. up to that point Banks failed Unemployment rose
Van Buren’s Response Uh what do you want me to do??? Van Buren did nothing because he strongly opposed government intervention The Panic of 1837 spelled disaster for Van Buren Van Buren was able to get the Independent Treasury passed U.S. Federal Gov’t Banks Martin Van Buren
Election of 1840 Martin Van Buren for the Democrats William Henry Harrison for the Whigs Log Cabin Campaign Whigs were more united Democrats had no answer to these campaign strategies
Election of 1840 Martin Van Buren for the Democrats William Henry Harrison for the Whigs 60 Electoral Votes 234 Electoral Votes
William Henry Harrison’s Inauguration Speech Shouldn’t he be wearing a coat??? IT’S FREEZING OUT!!!!!!!!!!!!
Tyler Takes Over John Tyler Was a former Democrat Destroyed Van Buren’s independent treasury Said no to Clay’s proposal to recharter the B.U.S. Vetoed several internal improvement bills Whigs broke ties with Tyler His cabinet resigned (except Sec. of State – Daniel Webster) The Caroline Affair Webster-Ashburton Treaty Treaty of Wang Hya