Presentation on theme: "American Politics in the 1790’s Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans."— Presentation transcript:
American Politics in the 1790’s Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans
Growth of Political Parties Who were the leaders? What were the issues?
THE ELECTION OF 1796 Vice President John Adams (left) against former Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson (right), former friends now turned bitter political enemies.
Total Number of Electors138 Total Electoral Votes Cast276 Number of Votes for a Majority70 1796 Election Results (16 states in the Union) CandidateStatePartyElectoral VotesPercent John AdamsMassachusettsFederalist7151.4% Thomas Jefferson VirginiaDemocratic- Republican 6849.3% Thomas Pinckney South CarolinaFederalist5942.8% Aaron BurrNew YorkDemocratic- Republican 3021.7% Samuel AdamsMassachusettsFederalist1510.9% Oliver EllsworthConnecticutFederalist118.0% George ClintonNew YorkDemocratic- Republican 75.1% Other--1510.9%
1796 Election Results
JOHN ADAMS stubborn, insecure, but high-minded Protect American interests but pro- British How do you follow George Washington?
JOHN ADAMS Presidential Issues ◦ XYZ Affair ◦ Quasi-War against France ◦ Alien and Sedition Acts ◦ Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions ◦ What do you do when your Vice-President is working against you?
War between France and England Adams supported British (Federalist stance) Jefferson supported French (Democratic- Republican stance)
XYZ Affair American diplomats in Paris to negotiate ◦ John Marshall ◦ Elbridge Gerry ◦ Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 3 unnamed French agents (X, Y, and Z) solicited bribes from Americans Had to pay to see French diplomats
XYZ Affair A British cartoon shows the United States (the young lady in the feathered Indian headdress) being accosted by impertinent and avaricious diplomats representing Revolutionary France.
Results of the XYZ Affair Congress (controlled by Federalists) ◦ Cut off trade w/France ◦ Used privateers to attack French ships ◦ Unofficial allies with British ◦ Waged undeclared war with French ◦ Need to strengthen defense
Beginnings of the U.S. Navy Navy Act of 1794 ◦ 6 frigates built (Mediterranean) Navy (part of Department of War) ◦ Large 44-gun frigates planned. More heavily armed and faster Marines deployed on ships ◦ Tradition of British Protect Captain and officers from crew Provide musket fire
Quasi-War on The High Seas
Operations of the Quasi-War Main theater: West Indies ◦ U.S. vs. French ◦ U.S. uses British ports ◦ Most of French fleet blockaded in Europe U.S. naval funding increased in 1799 ◦ Shipbuilding increases size of Navy
The Alien and Sedition Acts Used by Adams/Federalists to retaliate against Jefferson/Republicans Satiric portrayal: first fight in Congress: Matthew Lyon and Roger Griswold Lyon later prosecuted under Sedition Act
The Alien and Sedition Acts Alien Acts June, 1798 ◦ Naturalization Act = longer residence for citizenship ◦ 5 years to 14 ◦ president has power to expel/incarcerate foreigners (anti-French) Sedition Act July, 1798 ◦ crime to publish criticisms of government (anti- Dem.-Rep.) ◦ Allowed arrest and/or imprisonment of anti- Federalist publishers
The Alien and Sedition Acts Constitutional or Unconstitutional? Could Dem.-Reps. Challenge in the courts? ◦ No concept of judicial review yet ◦ Most federal judges were Federalist
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions,1798 Jefferson and Madison: Sedition Act violates 1 st Amendment States can nullify federal law if unconstitutional Jumpstarts Jefferson’s bid for president
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions,1798 Kentucky ◦ “unauthoritative, void, and of no force” Virginia ◦ States have right to refuse to enforce unconstitutional federal laws
THE ELECTION OF 1800 John Adams (left) and Thomas Jefferson (right) squared off for the presidency for a second time in 1800. It was the first and only instance in American history when a sitting President and Vice President ran against each other.
Election of 1800 John AdamsThomas Jefferson Federalist party Ended quasi-war Jefferson: a pro-French radical Democratic-Republican (Republican) party Critical of Adams for ◦ Alien and Sedition Acts ◦ Increased taxes for undeclared war Candidates did not campaign!
BRANDING JEFFERSON AS A DANGEROUS RADICAL A Federalist cartoon depicts Thomas Jefferson was an enemy of religion, lawful government, and the Constitution, who wanted to import a French-style revolution and reign of terror to America.
FEDERALIST ATTACKS GET PERSONAL This anti-Jefferson cartoon highlights the rumors that the Virginia politician kept a black mistress (Sally Hemmings, his slave and also his wife’s half-sister)
THE CAPITAL MOVES SOUTH John and Abigail Adams become the first occupants of the “executive mansion” in 1800
Total Number of Electors 138 Total Electoral Votes Cast 276 Number of Votes for a Majority 70 1800 Election Results (16 states in the Union) CandidateStatePartyElectoral VotesPercent Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic- Republican 73 52.9% Aaron BurrNew York Democratic- Republican 7352.9% John AdamsMassachusettsFederalist6547.1% Charles Pinckney South CarolinaFederalist6446.4% John JayNew YorkFederalist 1 0.7%
1800 Election Results Tie – Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr... ◦ House of Representatives decides ◦ Each state gets one vote ◦ candidate with majority became president ◦ House voted 35 times without a winner ◦ Alexander Hamilton convinces states to support Jefferson
1800 Final Election Results After 36 Ballots (In the House of Representatives!!) 1 vote for each State CandidateStatePartyVotesPercent Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic- Republican 1062.5% Aaron Burr New York Democratic- Republican 425.0% Blank------- 212.5% Thomas Jefferson becomes President Aaron Burr becomes Vice-President
1800 Election Results Why would Hamilton (who hates Jefferson) support him? Democratic-Republicans take control of both House and Senate 1796 ◦ Federalists have both houses and the presidency 1800 ◦ Republicans have both houses and the presidency Adams doesn’t stay for Jefferson’s inauguration
1800 Election Results
The “Revolution” of 1800? New Republic ◦ Weathered international storms French Revolution Napoleonic Wars ◦ new spirit of nationalism ◦ Party system legitimate dissent (“the loyal opposition”) Established pattern for diffusing/limiting political unrest Precedent of peaceful transfer of power from one party to another Did we pass the first, big Constitutional test?
The Twelfth Amendment Electors cast one vote instead of two President/vice-president on same ticket President/vice-president cannot be from same state