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The Rise of Political Parties

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1 The Rise of Political Parties
Hamilton vs. Jefferson

2 Alexander Hamilton He was born out of wedlock in the British West Indies. Orphaned at an early age Benefactors provided him with money to study in New York at King’s College aka Columbia University Served as Washington's aide de camp during the Revolutionary War Drafted the Federalist Papers with James Madison and John Jay First Secretary of the Treasury

3 Thomas Jefferson He was born to wealthy parents in Virginia.
Jefferson had a relatively sheltered upbringing. Studied at William & Mary College Served in the House of Burgesses & the Continental Congress Drafted the Declaration of Independence American Founding Father Served as Ambassador to France during the late 1780s First Secretary of State 3rd President of the United States

Federalist Beliefs (former Anti-Federalists) Democratic-Republicans Alexander Hamilton John Adams Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Patrick Henry Leader Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated…. Favored seaboard cities Farmers and Planters common man Favored the South and West Appealed to Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution Implied powers Wealthy and educated involved Limit freedoms of speech & press Preferred govt. similar to a king State’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution Expressed/Enumerated powers Common man but educated Bill of Rights is sacred Lesser government the better Ideas of Government Domestic Policy Supported National Bank—BUS Supported excise tax National debt good for country National govt. assume state debts Tariffs should be high Against National Bank—BUS Against excise tax Against National debt States pay their own debts Tariffs should be low Foreign Policy Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French

5 Federalist Papers Series of 85 essays or articles promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. The authors of The Federalist Papers wanted both to influence the vote in favor of ratification and to shape future interpretations of the Constitution. Another purpose that The Federalist was supposed to serve was as a debater's handbook during the ratification controversy, and indeed advocates for the Constitution in the conventions in New York and Virginia used the essays for precisely that purpose. The Federalist Papers are known for their opposition of The Bill of Rights. After initialing writing the Federalist Papers, James Madison later aligned himself with Thomas Jefferson as an anti-federalist.

6 Philosophical Differences
Hamilton Jefferson Hamilton distrusted the masses, favored government by self-made men (elites) Believed that Americans would become an Industrial/ Commercial power Supported strong central government to preserve order and secure liberties Argued for “Loose” interpretation of the Constitution to give the central government power to deal with challenges Jefferson placed confidence in the “common man” (to an extent) Believed that America should be an Agrarian republic of “virtuous citizen farmers” Distrusted centralized government-favored state rights and individual liberties Argued for “strict” interpretation of the Constitution to limit national power and preserve liberty

7 Economic Differences Hamilton Jefferson
Hamilton’s financial plan aimed to put the country on a strong economic footing Funding of national debt and assumption of the state debts Tariffs and excise taxes to provide national revenue and to protect “infant” industries Central Bank to provide a source of credit and a safe place for federal deposits Jefferson criticized Hamilton’s plan as a means of consolidating the financial power of the elite Challenged funding of debt because benefited speculators, not the original purchasers Considered assumption of state debts unfair because benefited northern states more Tariffs and a central bank also tended to help northern, urban interests at the expense of southern, rural Americans

8 The Compromise of 1790 Congress refused to pass Hamilton’s assumption plan because of opposition by James Madison and other southerners Jefferson invited Hamilton and Madison to dinner at his townhouse in New York City to work out a compromise Madison would support the assumption in exchange for Hamilton’s pledge to support the choice of the Potomac as the site for the nations permanent capital. Once an ally to Hamilton in the ratification debate, Madison distrusted his views on executive powers.

9 Foreign Policy Hamilton Jefferson
Hamiltonian federalist distrusted the radicalism of the French Revolution and sought to emulate the British system of strong banks and commerce Washington declared formal neutrality in 1793 to avoid involvement in European crisis Supported the Jay Treaty in which made concessions to Britain on trade issues but also avoided war Jeffersonian republicans embraced the French Revolution and argued that Americans should remain loyal to their ally Jefferson officially supported neutrality but was attacked for his continued support of revolutionary France, he resigned from George Washington’s cabinet in 1793 Republicans criticized the Jay Treaty as a “sell out” to the British

10 Use of National Power: The Whiskey Rebellion
Western Pennsylvania farmers rebelled against the high excise tax on whiskey in 1794 Washington responded by calling out the military to put down the rebellion Federalist argued that National power must be asserted to demonstrate the new country’s stability and to make the point that challenges to government policy must be peaceful Washington led 15,000 militia into Western Pennsylvania, the only time that a sitting President has led his troops into action

11 Washington’s Farewell Address
Washington warned against both factionalism and “foreign entanglements” in his last published addressed as President in 1796 He was especially concerned with the emerging split between the Federalists led by Hamilton and Adams and the Republicans led by Jefferson and Madison would split the country apart along sectional lines The election of 1796 was the first two party election in US history; John Adams won but Jefferson became Vice President.

12 Quasi War and Alien & Sedition Acts
By 1797, the French had intercepted American vessels seeking to trade with Britain “XYZ Affair”- American officials sent to negotiate with the French were expected to pay a bribe American outrage led to an undeclared naval war with France (the Quasi War) The Federalist controlled Congress cracked down on dissent with the Alien & Sedition Act. Alien Act – Aimed at non-citizens. Lengthened the time from 5 to 14 years that it took for an immigrant to become a citizen and have a right to vote since most immigrants voted Republican. It also allowed the President to jail or deport aliens that the administration thought were causing trouble. Sedition Act – Made encouraging rebellion against the government a crime including printing, writing, or speech making

13 States’ Rights & The Election of 1800
Jefferson and the Republicans responded with charges that the Federalist were abusing liberties under the First Amendment Madison and Jefferson drafted the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions which argued that the States’ had the power of both interposition and nullification (the heart of States’ Rights Doctrine) to defend the rights of the people. Republicans used the issue to help win the election of 1800 which was the first peaceful transfer of power between political parties in American History

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