Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Political Parties"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Rise of Political Parties Hamilton vs. Jefferson
2 Alexander HamiltonHe was born out of wedlock in the British West Indies.Orphaned at an early ageBenefactors provided him with money to study in New York at King’s College aka Columbia UniversityServed as Washington's aide de camp during the Revolutionary WarDrafted the Federalist Papers with James Madison and John JayFirst Secretary of the Treasury
3 Thomas Jefferson He was born to wealthy parents in Virginia. Jefferson had a relatively sheltered upbringing.Studied at William & Mary CollegeServed in the House of Burgesses & the Continental CongressDrafted the Declaration of IndependenceAmerican Founding FatherServed as Ambassador to France during the late 1780sFirst Secretary of State3rd President of the United States
4 RISE OF POLITICAL PARTIES Federalist Beliefs(former Anti-Federalists) Democratic-RepublicansAlexander Hamilton John AdamsThomas Jefferson, James Madison, Patrick HenryLeaderManufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated…. Favored seaboard citiesFarmers and Planters common man Favored the South and WestAppealed toStrong government over states Loose Construction of ConstitutionImplied powersWealthy and educated involvedLimit freedoms of speech & pressPreferred govt. similar to a kingState’s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of ConstitutionExpressed/Enumerated powersCommon man but educatedBill of Rights is sacredLesser government the betterIdeas of GovernmentDomestic PolicySupported National Bank—BUS Supported excise tax National debt good for country National govt. assume state debts Tariffs should be highAgainst National Bank—BUS Against excise tax Against National debt States pay their own debts Tariffs should be lowForeign PolicyOpposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the BritishSupported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French
5 Federalist PapersSeries of 85 essays or articles promoting the ratification of the United States ConstitutionWritten by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay.The authors of The Federalist Papers wanted both to influence the vote in favor of ratification and to shape future interpretations of the Constitution.Another purpose that The Federalist was supposed to serve was as a debater's handbook during the ratification controversy, and indeed advocates for the Constitution in the conventions in New York and Virginia used the essays for precisely that purpose.The Federalist Papers are known for their opposition of The Bill of Rights.After initialing writing the Federalist Papers, James Madison later aligned himself with Thomas Jefferson as an anti-federalist.
6 Philosophical Differences HamiltonJeffersonHamilton distrusted the masses, favored government by self-made men (elites)Believed that Americans would become an Industrial/ Commercial powerSupported strong central government to preserve order and secure libertiesArgued for “Loose” interpretation of the Constitution to give the central government power to deal with challengesJefferson placed confidence in the “common man” (to an extent)Believed that America should be an Agrarian republic of “virtuous citizen farmers”Distrusted centralized government-favored state rights and individual libertiesArgued for “strict” interpretation of the Constitution to limit national power and preserve liberty
7 Economic Differences Hamilton Jefferson Hamilton’s financial plan aimed to put the country on a strong economic footingFunding of national debt and assumption of the state debtsTariffs and excise taxes to provide national revenue and to protect “infant” industriesCentral Bank to provide a source of credit and a safe place for federal depositsJefferson criticized Hamilton’s plan as a means of consolidating the financial power of the eliteChallenged funding of debt because benefited speculators, not the original purchasersConsidered assumption of state debts unfair because benefited northern states moreTariffs and a central bank also tended to help northern, urban interests at the expense of southern, rural Americans
8 The Compromise of 1790Congress refused to pass Hamilton’s assumption plan because of opposition by James Madison and other southernersJefferson invited Hamilton and Madison to dinner at his townhouse in New York City to work out a compromiseMadison would support the assumption in exchange for Hamilton’s pledge to support the choice of the Potomac as the site for the nations permanent capital.Once an ally to Hamilton in the ratification debate,Madison distrusted his views on executivepowers.
9 Foreign Policy Hamilton Jefferson Hamiltonian federalist distrusted the radicalism of the French Revolution and sought to emulate the British system of strong banks and commerceWashington declared formal neutrality in 1793 to avoid involvement in European crisisSupported the Jay Treaty in which made concessions to Britain on trade issues but also avoided warJeffersonian republicans embraced the French Revolution and argued that Americans should remain loyal to their allyJefferson officially supported neutrality but was attacked for his continued support of revolutionary France, he resigned from George Washington’s cabinet in 1793Republicans criticized the Jay Treaty as a “sell out” to the British
10 Use of National Power: The Whiskey Rebellion Western Pennsylvania farmers rebelled against the high excise tax on whiskey in 1794Washington responded by calling out the military to put down the rebellionFederalist argued that National power must be asserted to demonstrate the new country’s stability and to make the point that challenges to government policy must be peacefulWashington led 15,000 militia into Western Pennsylvania, the only time that a sitting President has led his troops into action
11 Washington’s Farewell Address Washington warned against both factionalism and “foreign entanglements” in his last published addressed as President in 1796He was especially concerned with the emerging split between the Federalists led by Hamilton and Adams and the Republicans led by Jefferson and Madison would split the country apart along sectional linesThe election of 1796 was the first two party election in US history; John Adams won but Jefferson became Vice President.
12 Quasi War and Alien & Sedition Acts By 1797, the French had intercepted American vessels seeking to trade with Britain“XYZ Affair”- American officials sent to negotiate with the French were expected to pay a bribeAmerican outrage led to an undeclared naval war with France (the Quasi War)The Federalist controlled Congress cracked down on dissent with the Alien & Sedition Act.Alien Act – Aimed at non-citizens. Lengthened the time from 5 to 14 years that it took for an immigrant to become a citizen and have a right to vote since most immigrants voted Republican. It also allowed the President to jail or deport aliens that the administration thought were causing trouble.Sedition Act – Made encouraging rebellion against the government a crime including printing, writing, or speech making
13 States’ Rights & The Election of 1800 Jefferson and the Republicans responded with charges that the Federalist were abusing liberties under the First AmendmentMadison and Jefferson drafted the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions which argued that the States’ had the power of both interposition and nullification (the heart of States’ Rights Doctrine) to defend the rights of the people.Republicans used the issue to help win the election of 1800 which was the first peaceful transfer of power between political parties in American History