4Objectives Define a political party? Describe the major functions of polticial parties.Identify the reasons why the US has a two-party system.Understand multiparty and one-party systems and how they affect the functioning of a polticial system.
5A) What is a Party?Political party – group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public officeDivided into three elementsParty OrganizationParty in the GovernmentParty in the Electorate
6B) What Parties Do Link between governed and govern Soften the impact of extremistsPolitical spectrum – range of political views (126)Partisanship – the strong support of their party and its policy standsNominate CandidatesInforming and Activating SupportersThe Bonding Agent Function – pick good candidatesGoverningWatchdog Function
7C) The Two-Party System Started with the ratification of the Constitution – Federalists and Anti-FederlistsTraditionally we have thus always have had one so it is hard for 3rd parties to come forwardSingle member districts – winner takes all – promotes 2 partyPlurality – the most, not the majorityWasted vote – 3rd party memberLaw discourages 3rd partyBipartisan – two parties work together and find common ground (127)Consensus – general agreement among groupsUS has mostly been an ideologically consensus – we have had some divisions (Civil War) but for the most part - similar
8D) Multiparty Systems and One Party Systems Multiparty systems lead to more diverseness but also lead to more instabilityCoalition – temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority to control the governmentOne Party is also a no party – not a dictatorshipIn ¼ of states today, a single party wins most elections - Chicago, “Solid South”
11Objectives Understand the origins of political parties in the US. Identify and describe the three major periods of single-party domination and describe the current era of divided government.
12II. Two Party System in American History Federalists v. Anti-FederalistsJefferson created the Democratic Republicans – 1800Incumbent – current officeholderPage
13A) The Era of DemocratsEra of Good Feelings – only one real party – Jefferson’s 1800 – 1824Factions – competing groupsJacksonian democrats v. WhigsSpoils system – practice of awarding public offices, contracts, and other favorers to those who supported the party in power.1854 – Republicans created Ripon, WI.Elected Lincoln in 1860
14B) The Era of the Republican From 1860 – 1932 – almost complete Republican control of the PresidencyCleveland in 1884 and 1892, Wilson inRepublicans had tremendous prosperityDemocrats also to sectional – supported only in the South – Anti-Black (Solid South)Electorate – the people eligible to voteSectionalism – emphasizes a devotion to the interests of a particular region
15D) The Return of the Democrats Great Depression allowed Democrats to take overNew base of southerners, small farmers, labor, and big city politics supported economic and social welfare programsAfrican Americans left Republicans and became Democrats.1932 – 1968 – only break was Eisenhower from (moderate)
17ReviewDo we appear to be on the verge of such an era of dominance of a party today? Why or why not?
18ObjectivesIdentify the types of minor parties that have been active in American politics.Understand why minor parties are important despite the fact that none has ever won the presidency.
19III. The Minor Parties Libertarian Reform Socialist Prohibition Natural lawCommunistAmerican IndependentGreenConstitutionShort livedParticular localSingle state4 types
20A) Minor Parties in the United States Ideological parties – based on a particular set of comprehensive believes of social, economic, and political matters – most a share of MarxismSingle – Issue parties: focus on single public concern(free soil, Know Nothings, Right to Life Party)Econo0mic Protest Parties – exist in times of economic distrust – they blame someone and demand better times (Wall Street, bankers, railroads, or imports)Splinter Parties – parties that split away from major parties usually around a strong personality – most often who failed to win their parties nomination. (Roosevelt, George Wallace)Green Party started as single issue – now it has spread.
21B) Why Minor Parties Are Important Anti-Masons first used a convention to nominate a Presidential CandidateCan play “spoiler” in an election – Nader in 2000 and Roosevelt in 1912Act as critics and innovatorsMost innovations are “stolen” by the bigger party
22ReviewWhy do you think a leader or group might seek to create a minor party even though their chances for winning are less than those of a major party?A minor party is likely to be a victim of its own success. Explain the meaning of this statement.In what ways can minor parties impact elections in this country?
23IV. Party Organization Objectives: Understand why the major parties have a decentralized structure.Describe the national party machinery and party organization at the State and local levels.
24A) The Decentralized Nature of the Parties Dems and Repubs are both decentralized with little control from National to State to Local partiesThe President is always the head of the political party – makes sense – power, favors, access to mediaFederalism makes the parties decentralized – over 500,000 elected posts in the US. – Federalism is decentralized, helps make US alsoNominating a President can cause factions within the party – helping decentralize it
25B) National Party Machinery National Convention – meets every 4 years and picks Pres and VP and adopts party platform and rules.The National Committee – made up of all state chair people and other supporters – main goal is to stage the National Convention.National Chairperson – chosen right after the President is nominated from the National Convention or elected.Congressional Campaign Committee – Each party in each house have own campaign committees
26C) State and Local Party machinery Have a state committee with a chairperson usually a front for the governorLocally, it could be anythingWard – unit in which cities are divided into districtsPrecinct – smallest unit of election administrationUsually only active in the few months before an election
27ReviewProject timeDesign a Minor Political Party