2Question for Thought:Let’s pretend that your family has decided to go out to dinner tonight. How would your family go about making the decision of where to go out to dinner? Please write at least three complete sentences.Possible answers:Mom Decides(or Dad… but we all know who is really in charge)Parents Decide togetherFamily VoteOther options?
3Three types of government Autocracy – power is held by a single rulerRule of OneOligarchy – power is held by a small, elite group of people in societyRule of FewDemocracy – power is held by the peopleRule of ManyDirect Democracy – all people vote on everythingIndirect Democracy (REPUBLIC)– people elect representatives who make decisionsWhich of these sounds most like our government?
4Assignment Read pgs. 21-27 in We the People books Answer: What are the three characteristics of republican government?Draw and complete the following chart in notes:ADVANTAGESof republican governmentDISADVANTAGESOf republican government
5Three Characteristics of a republican govt. Citizens have the power to governCitizens delegate their power to elected leaders who represent the people’s interestsBoth citizens and their representatives work together toward the common good
6Republican form of government ADVANTAGESof republican governmentDISADVANTAGESOf republican governmentRepresentatives serve the common goodHow?Self-Interest (re-election)More efficientSpecialized law-makersAll people still have a voice in governmentVoting!Representatives are responsible to be the voice of the peopleWhat prevents them from serving special interests only?Works best in smaller settings where communication is easyDo you know your U.S. senators?Do you know your state representative?Diversity in population can be problematicWhat if you are the voice of a district that has half republicans and half democrats?Half rich and half poor?Can create factionsSpecial interests can have a big influence
7Assignment: Get into groups of 2-4 (no more than 4) Read pgs in WE THE PEOPLEReflect on the story as you discuss and create answers to the questions that follow the reading.Have designated people within your group ready to answer each question.
8Forms of autocracy Absolute Monarchy Dictatorship/Totalitarianism Monarch has absolute powerDoes not include “ConstitutionalMonarchs” like the Queen ofEnglandDictatorship/TotalitarianismOne leader who not only controls behavior, but attempts to control thinkingFascismCommunismTheocracyReligious leader in chargePeople must follow laws of the religionKing Abdullah of Saudi ArabiaAdolf HitlerAyatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
9Two Forms of Totalitarianism FascismCommunism- extreme nationalism- warlike policies- persecution of minorities- all property is owned by the government- the government controls all publications, radio, and television, and restricts journalismAdolf Hitler- Nazi GermanyKim Jong-il,North KoreaBenito Mussolinifounded ItalianFascism (Italy )Examples: North Korea, Cuba, the former Soviet Union
10Autocracy - “Rule by a Single Person” Democracy - “Rule by the Many”Oligarchy - Power is held by a small, elite group of people in society.- Often controlled by a few powerful families who raise their children to inherit the governmentCharacteristics:family ties to an aristocracyruthlessnesswealthpolitical influencemilitary strengthExamples: Ancient Sparta; South Africa under apartheid when the white minority ruled the black majority ( )There really aren’t any true oligarchies in the world today.
11Types of Democracies/Republics Direct Democracy- All the citizens vote directly on the lawsRepresentative Democracy/Republic- Representatives vote on the lawsLiberal Democracy- Representative Democracy that includes the protection of minorities, separation of powers, and protection of libertiesFull Presidential RepublicThree Forms ofRepublicsSemi-Presidential RepublicParliamentary Republic
12Rule of One – Monarch or King King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia rare inheritoneRule of One – Monarch or KingKing Abdullah of Saudi ArabiararerelatedAbsoluteConstitutionaldictatorinheritRule of One - DictatorforceelectedAdolf HitlertakesweakRule of the few – Small GroupSouth Africa under apartheideliteinheritwealthpolitical influencemilitary strengtharistocracyruthlessnessThe peopleDirectAllU.S. and many other nations in various formsRule of the many – PeopleallRepresentativerepresentativesrepresentativesLiberal
13Presidential Republic Two Forms of Democratic GovernmentPresidential RepublicParliamentary Republic- The President is both the Chief Executive and the Head of State- Head of State and Chief Executive are two separate offices. Head of State is either a President or a Monarch. Chief Executive is often called a Prime Minister.- Powers of the President are usually balanced (or shared) with those of the legislature- Head of State is usually a ceremonial role, while the Prime Minister runs the government.- The President is elected independently by the people, not by the legislature- Prime Minister is not elected, but is usually chosen by the party with the most seats in the legislature, or is sometimes appointed by the President.U.S. President Barack ObamaBritish Queen Elizabeth II & Prime Minister David Cameron
14Semi-Presidential Republic Some countries combine Presidential and Parliamentary SystemsFranceThe President is usually elected by the people and serves as head of state, but is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead. The President also has some power to run the government.The Prime Minister is usually appointed by the President, and sometimes elected by the people, and serves as the head of government.In France, the President controls foreign policy and the Prime Minister controls domestic policy.President François HollandePrime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault (appointed by the President)Examples: France, Russia
15Weak Central Government Three Systems of GovernmentUnitaryConfederationStrongCentralGovernmentWeak Central GovernmentWeak State GovernmentsStrong State GovernmentsFederalStrong CentralGovernmentPowersof theCentralGov’t.Powersof theStatesSharedPowersStrong State Governments
16Unitary System of Government Definition: A strong central government controlsweaker state and local governments.Strong CentralGovernmentWeak State GovernmentsCentral Government can take power away from the state and local governments at any time.Central Government acts directly on the people.Examples: United Kingdom, France, Sweden
17Weak Central Government Confederation System of GovernmentDefinition: Independent, strong state governments with a weak central government.Weak Central GovernmentStrongStateGov-ern-mentsStates have independent control over their own areaCentral government only controls things of common concernStates can withdraw from the Confederation at any timeCentral government acts on the states, not directly on peopleExample: Second Athenian Empire, Old Swiss Confederacy
18Before the Founding Fathers created the Constitution, most nations had either a Unitary or Confederate system of government.Governments held authority over the people. The people did not control the government. In some countries, the King was in charge. In Confederation governments, the local or state government was in charge. The people had little say.In a Federal System of government, the people decide who gets the power. In the Constitution, the Framers decided to split the power between the central government and the state governments.
19Federal System of Government Definition: Power is shared between the centralgovernment and state governments.Strong CentralGovernmentPowers of theCentralGovernmentPowers of theStateGovernmentsSharedPowersTax the peopleCreate post officesDeclare warCreate public schoolsStrong State GovernmentsThe Central Government is usually stronger than the state governments, but there are some powers the states have that the Central Government does not have.Examples: United States, India, Canada, Germany, Mexico
20weak Central Govt. STRONG Central Govt. STRONG Central Govt. STRONG State Govts.weak State Govts.STRONG State Govts.STRONG CENTRALSTRONGWEAKERWEAKERCENTRAL POWERSSHARED POWERSSTATE POWERSSHAREDPEOPLEUNITED KINGDOMSTATESUNITED STATESFRANCE