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Systems of Government.

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Presentation on theme: "Systems of Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Systems of Government

2 Question for Thought: Let’s pretend that your family has decided to go out to dinner tonight. How would your family go about making the decision of where to go out to dinner? Please write at least three complete sentences. Possible answers: Mom Decides (or Dad… but we all know who is really in charge) Parents Decide together Family Vote Other options?

3 Three types of government
Autocracy – power is held by a single ruler Rule of One Oligarchy – power is held by a small, elite group of people in society Rule of Few Democracy – power is held by the people Rule of Many Direct Democracy – all people vote on everything Indirect Democracy (REPUBLIC)– people elect representatives who make decisions Which of these sounds most like our government?

4 Assignment Read pgs. 21-27 in We the People books
Answer: What are the three characteristics of republican government? Draw and complete the following chart in notes: ADVANTAGES of republican government DISADVANTAGES Of republican government

5 Three Characteristics of a republican govt.
Citizens have the power to govern Citizens delegate their power to elected leaders who represent the people’s interests Both citizens and their representatives work together toward the common good

6 Republican form of government
ADVANTAGES of republican government DISADVANTAGES Of republican government Representatives serve the common good How? Self-Interest (re-election) More efficient Specialized law-makers All people still have a voice in government Voting! Representatives are responsible to be the voice of the people What prevents them from serving special interests only? Works best in smaller settings where communication is easy Do you know your U.S. senators? Do you know your state representative? Diversity in population can be problematic What if you are the voice of a district that has half republicans and half democrats? Half rich and half poor? Can create factions Special interests can have a big influence

7 Assignment: Get into groups of 2-4 (no more than 4)
Read pgs in WE THE PEOPLE Reflect on the story as you discuss and create answers to the questions that follow the reading. Have designated people within your group ready to answer each question.

8 Forms of autocracy Absolute Monarchy Dictatorship/Totalitarianism
Monarch has absolute power Does not include “Constitutional Monarchs” like the Queen of England Dictatorship/Totalitarianism One leader who not only controls behavior, but attempts to control thinking Fascism Communism Theocracy Religious leader in charge People must follow laws of the religion King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia Adolf Hitler Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

9 Two Forms of Totalitarianism
Fascism Communism - extreme nationalism - warlike policies - persecution of minorities - all property is owned by the government - the government controls all publications, radio, and television, and restricts journalism Adolf Hitler - Nazi Germany Kim Jong-il, North Korea Benito Mussolini founded Italian Fascism (Italy ) Examples: North Korea, Cuba, the former Soviet Union

10 Autocracy - “Rule by a Single Person”
Democracy - “Rule by the Many” Oligarchy - Power is held by a small, elite group of people in society. - Often controlled by a few powerful families who raise their children to inherit the government Characteristics: family ties to an aristocracy ruthlessness wealth political influence military strength Examples: Ancient Sparta; South Africa under apartheid when the white minority ruled the black majority ( ) There really aren’t any true oligarchies in the world today.

11 Types of Democracies/Republics
Direct Democracy - All the citizens vote directly on the laws Representative Democracy/Republic - Representatives vote on the laws Liberal Democracy - Representative Democracy that includes the protection of minorities, separation of powers, and protection of liberties Full Presidential Republic Three Forms of Republics Semi-Presidential Republic Parliamentary Republic

12 Rule of One – Monarch or King King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia rare
inherit one Rule of One – Monarch or King King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia rare related Absolute Constitutional dictator inherit Rule of One - Dictator force elected Adolf Hitler takes weak Rule of the few – Small Group South Africa under apartheid elite inherit wealth political influence military strength aristocracy ruthlessness The people Direct All U.S. and many other nations in various forms Rule of the many – People all Representative representatives representatives Liberal

13 Presidential Republic
Two Forms of Democratic Government Presidential Republic Parliamentary Republic - The President is both the Chief Executive and the Head of State - Head of State and Chief Executive are two separate offices. Head of State is either a President or a Monarch. Chief Executive is often called a Prime Minister. - Powers of the President are usually balanced (or shared) with those of the legislature - Head of State is usually a ceremonial role, while the Prime Minister runs the government. - The President is elected independently by the people, not by the legislature - Prime Minister is not elected, but is usually chosen by the party with the most seats in the legislature, or is sometimes appointed by the President. U.S. President Barack Obama British Queen Elizabeth II & Prime Minister David Cameron

14 Semi-Presidential Republic
Some countries combine Presidential and Parliamentary Systems France The President is usually elected by the people and serves as head of state, but is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead. The President also has some power to run the government. The Prime Minister is usually appointed by the President, and sometimes elected by the people, and serves as the head of government. In France, the President controls foreign policy and the Prime Minister controls domestic policy. President François Hollande Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault (appointed by the President) Examples: France, Russia

15 Weak Central Government
Three Systems of Government Unitary Confederation Strong Central Government Weak Central Government Weak State Governments Strong State Governments Federal Strong Central Government Powers of the Central Gov’t. Powers of the States Shared Powers Strong State Governments

16 Unitary System of Government
Definition: A strong central government controls weaker state and local governments. Strong Central Government Weak State Governments Central Government can take power away from the state and local governments at any time. Central Government acts directly on the people. Examples: United Kingdom, France, Sweden

17 Weak Central Government
Confederation System of Government Definition: Independent, strong state governments with a weak central government. Weak Central Government Strong State Gov- ern- ments States have independent control over their own area Central government only controls things of common concern States can withdraw from the Confederation at any time Central government acts on the states, not directly on people Example: Second Athenian Empire, Old Swiss Confederacy

18 Before the Founding Fathers created the Constitution, most nations had either a Unitary or Confederate system of government. Governments held authority over the people. The people did not control the government. In some countries, the King was in charge. In Confederation governments, the local or state government was in charge. The people had little say. In a Federal System of government, the people decide who gets the power. In the Constitution, the Framers decided to split the power between the central government and the state governments.

19 Federal System of Government
Definition: Power is shared between the central government and state governments. Strong Central Government Powers of the Central Government Powers of the State Governments Shared Powers Tax the people Create post offices Declare war Create public schools Strong State Governments The Central Government is usually stronger than the state governments, but there are some powers the states have that the Central Government does not have. Examples: United States, India, Canada, Germany, Mexico

20 weak Central Govt. STRONG Central Govt. STRONG Central Govt.

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