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The IRB, IRA, and Black and Tans

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1 The IRB, IRA, and Black and Tans
By: Nicole Sherretts 12 January 2010

2 Irish Republican Brotherhood
Its Start and Connections Originally called the Irish Revolutionary Brotherhood. Founded in Dublin on St. Patrick’s Day in 1858. Founded by James Stephens Was formed to makes ensure the formation of an independent Irish Republic. Primary purpose: to arrange an uprising in Ireland. It was democratic in outlook and in membership. Its rank and file was from among ordinary working people. Was connected with the Fenian Brotherhood in the U.S. as they were created at the same time and both Brotherhoods were known as the Fenian Movement. Members were part of the Irish Volunteers and the Sinn Fein organizations, along with other various organizations.

3 History of the IRB Its Order of Events
The IRB was involved in the rescue of Fenian prisoners from Western Australia in 1876. The IRB played a key role in the Land War and the rise of Parnell. They had bombing campaigns in England in the 1880s. The IRB initially founded the GAA (The Gaelic Athletic Association). The Easter Rising of 1916 was organized by the Supreme Council of the IRB. Many republicans blamed the secretiveness of the IRB for the confusion surrounding the Rising and for its failure. However, following it’s collapse after 1916, it was reorganized by Michael Collins as he believed they played a crucial role in gathering intelligence. By 1918 there were 350 IRB circles with a total membership of 3,000.

4 The Ending of the IRB During the War of Independence, however, the organization decreased in authority as the IRA gained more prominence. The IRB divided over the Treaty in December 1921. Having split and having members making a new splinter group made it impossible for the IRB to survive the effects of the Civil War and it disbanded in

5 Irish Republican Army Founded in 1919 Organized by Michael Collins
It was devoted to removing the British forces and British rule from Northern Ireland thus unifying Ireland. Formed by the militant members of the Irish Volunteers. It became the military wing of the Sinn Féin party.

6 Traditional IRA Activities
The Proof of the Violence of the IRA Bombings Assassinations Kidnappings Punishment beatings Extortion Smuggling Robberies Border Raids

7 A History of the IRA IRA waged a guerrilla campaign against British rule in Ireland in the Irish War of Independence. Was held responsible for the bomb explosions in England, which occurred in 1939. As a result hundreds of its members were imprisoned. During World War II many more IRA members were imprisoned without trial in Ireland. In 1956 violence erupted in Northern Ireland and the IRA performed a series of border raids. Following violence against civil rights demonstrators and nationalists by the IRA it split into Provisional and Official wings in 1969, thus ending the original IRA. However, a descendant of the original IRA still remains today.

8 Black and Tans The Birth of the Black and Tans Were originally just reinforcements for the Royal Irish Constabulary because in 1919 the RIC had had enough of being a source of attack for the IRB and IRA. They became known as the Black and Tans for their clothing. Around 9,500 men who were British ex‐soldiers and sailors were recruited and joined the RIC and the RIC didn’t have enough uniforms so the new men were issued with khaki military trousers and dark green police tunics. Also, even though RIC uniforms were later substituted, the name remained.

9 The Reality of the Black and Tans
Unfortunately, the Black and Tans did not act as an adjunct to the RIC as originally planned because they lacked self-discipline. Because of this lack of discipline the the Black and Tans became known for their brutality. Therefore, they terrorized local communities and decided it was their job to make Ireland ‘hell for the rebels to live in’. An example of this brutality is the infamous attack on the public in November A mass group of people were in Croke Park, Dublin, to watch a football match when the Black and Tans opened fire on the crowd, killing twelve people in retaliation for the murder of fourteen undercover detectives. Source of quote: History Learning Site

10 The End of the Black and Tans
In the end the Black and Tans proved to be counterproductive as they caused civilians to give more support to the IRA. Therefore, the Black and Tans were pulled out of Ireland as part of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December

11 Irish Republican Brotherhood Sources
“Irish Republican Brotherhood.” Encyclopedia.com. 9 Jan <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O48- IrishRepublicanBrotherhod.html>. “IRISH REPUBLICAN BROTHERHOOD.” University College Dublin. 9 Jan <http://www.ucd.ie/archives/html/collections/irb.html> . Mac Donncha, Michael. “The Founding of the Fenians.” An Phoblacht. 13 Mar Jan <http://www.anphoblacht.com/news/detail/26244>. “The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB).” BBC. 9 Jan <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/profi les/. po17.shtml>.

12 Irish Republican Army Sources
“Irish Republican Army”. Infoplease. 9 Jan <http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/irish+republican+army >. “Irish Republican Army”. Encyclopedia.com. 9 Jan <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O48- IrishRepublicanArmy.html>. “Irish Republican Army”. The New York Times. 9 Jan <http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/organiz ations/i/irish_republican_army/index.html>. “Irish Republican Army”. History.com. 9 Jan <http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?vendorId=FWNE.fw..i r a#FWNE.fw..ir a>. Pike, John. ”Irish Republican Army (IRA)”. 21 July Jan <http://www.aresearchguide.com/monthdayabb.html>.

13 Black and Tans Sources “Black and Tans”. Encyclopedia.com. 9 Jan <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O245- BlackandTans.html>. “Black and Tans”. The Free Dictionary. 9 Jan <http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Black+and+Tans>. “The Black and Tans”. History Learning Site. 9 Jan <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/black_and_tans .htm>.


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