Presentation on theme: "The Republican Experiment"— Presentation transcript:
1The Republican Experiment A.P. U.S. HistoryMr. Krueger
2RepublicanismConcept that ultimate political authority is vested in the citizens of the nation. The character of republican government was dependent on the civic virtue of its citizens to preserve the nation from corruption and moral decay.
3From Monarchy to Republic The term Republican was more powerful in the 18th century than the 21st centuryThe American people had taken the responsibility of founding an elective system of governmentA republic government demanded a high degree of public morality. Why?If luxury and prodigality were substituted for virtue and economy, problems would exist.
4The KeyThe spread of Protestant Evangelicalism was essential to maintaining a sense of order.The thought – God promised progress and prosperity to the republicPopulation increasesNew HousesLand ClearingIndustrial DevelopmentAmericans will divide over liberty and orderGoodness must overtake wealth for success in America
5Discussion Where do women and blacks fit into this new society? What demands does liberty impose upon the new government?What does the Republic need of its citizens to survive?Who were the early leaders that ensured success?
6Social-Political Reform Americans end any aristocratic presence, and special privilege related to noble birthG. Washington and other officials founded the Society of Cincinnati – a membership passed from father to son in 1783.Some felt this would destroy civil liberty. It was referred to as hereditary peerage.G. Washington established bylaws and reforms – the crisis passed.Titles such as esquire and the wearing of white wigs were ended (English Customs)The appearance of equality was more important than achievement. War was waged against the Monarchy – should not have classes visibly distinguishable.States abolish primogeniture.
7Social-Political Reform Lowering of property requirements for voting privilege was encouraged.Pennsylvania and Georgia allowed all white male tax payers to vote, and all other states lowered requirements, with the exception of Massachusetts.J. Adams exclaimed that if states went too far women might receive rights and men without a farthing might have equal vote.As settlers moved to the frontier they were still recognized in their state legislature. State Capitals also moved west to make meetings easier for legislatures.
8Social-Political Reforms Post independence Americans reexamined the relationship between church and stateThomas Jefferson believed that all should have free expression of religious beliefsHe sought disestablishment of the Anglican ChurchThey had received pre-revolution tax money1786 – Virginia cut ties between church and stateOther states disestablished the Anglican Church, but in Massachusetts and New Hampshire Congregational Churches still enjoyed special statusAmericans supported toleration, but tended to oppose philosophers who challenged Christian values
9African Americans in the New Republic Slavery contradicts republican principle. How do they allow this?During the revolution abolitionist feelings spreadIssue: Liberty was demanded from England, yet we enslaved several 100,000 AfricansAfrican Americans constantly reminded law makers that they had the right to libertyNew Hampshire – 19 blacks called themselves the “Natives of Africa” and reminded legislatures how detestable slavery was.Benjamin Banneker – Maryland’s African American astronomer and mathematicianPhilip Wheatley – Boston’s celebrated African muse-recognized poet even in Europe
10African Americans in the New Republic T. Jefferson – “Our black brethren have talents equal to those of other colors”In northern states slaves had no practical use and new immigrants resented competing for jobs with slavesLeads to anti-slavery societiesBen Franklin organized a group called “The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held” (Philadelphia)John Jay and Alexander Hamilton founded the Manumission Society (1785 New York)
11DiscussionWhat differences lead to the divide between cultural outlooks on slavery in the north and south of the United States?In areas that prohibit slavery, are African Americans equal?What did Eli Whitney invent in 1793 that compounded the need for slaves in the south?
12Rethinking Gender Revolution accelerated change in family structure Pre-revolution – fathers were the patriarchs – unlimited power in familiesMany novels written on this – discussed how women were innocent victims of unreformed males – “Pamela and Clarissa”Things change as women make demands of Republic and husbandsAbigail Adams told her husband to remember the ladies at the meetings of the Continental CongressNew idea: if virtue was important, mothers need teach these values to their children and instruct their husbands in proper behaviorWomen must share virtue and prudence
13Rethinking GenderEducated Women were more successful and needed an education equal to menDivorce became more commonNew opportunitiesWomen’s organizationsRunning family farms and businessesNew Jersey women who owned property could vote Repealed in Reason – their votes determined an election outcome.Some gains, but they remain central to home life.
14Lessons of Republicanism May 1776 – Second Continental Congress urges states to adopt constitutionsRhode Island and Connecticut had Republican government by virtue of their 17th century chartersSome early constitutions were experimental and later rewritten.After independence Americans demanded state constitutions to completely explain:Rights of peoplePower of the rulers
15Natural RightsState Constitution authors thought men and women possessed certain rights which government had no control8 State constitutions contained a Declaration of Rights3 fundamental freedomsReligionSpeechPressThey protected from:Unlawful searchesUnlawful seizuresUpheld trial by jury
16Governors? State Constitutions reduced power of governor Some states eliminated the position, or the president replaced it.Governors were controlled:Almost no political appointment powerNo veto power (Massachusetts was the exception)Most effective power was in the legislaturePenn. and Georgia were unicameral (one house system)Two house systems survived the revolution because it was familiar.
17Power to the PeopleJohn Adams took leadership for the new Massachusetts ConstitutionFramework:Governor (veto power)HouseSenateProperty qualifications for office holders and votersGrowing Trend – politicians seem a little poorer, less polished, not so well dressed or educatedThey were called the people’s men: honest and sincereNew republic depended on the virtue of its people.
18Articles of Confederation Separate States could not deal with post war issuesConducting warBorrowing MoneyRegulating TradeNegotiating treatiesCentral government was needed – founding members feared a strong central government like Britain.John Dickinson and committee created a plan with a strong central government, equal state representation, and taxes based on population – blacks as well as whites.Not well received – instead the Articles of Confederation were ratified in 1777.
19The Plan Articles provided for: Weaknesses: Single Legislative Body Representatives selected annually by state legislaturesEach state had a single vote in CongressWeaknesses:No independent executiveNo veto over legislature decisionsCongress can’t taxNational government could only obtain funds by asking fro state contributionsAmendments to the Articles required the approval of all 13 states
20Opposition Major question – land west of Appalachians Hoped the British would surrender the landsVirginia and Georgia claimed lands from Atlantic to Pacific, and other colonies felt the sameResolution: 1781 – Virginia agreed to cede land to the confederation.Jefferson worried that western expansion would be difficult to governIt was now thought that the west belonged to the United States, not the separate states.
21New Departments and Achievements Created:Dept. of WarForeign Affairs Dept.Finance Dept.Achievements:Brought order to the western settlement (Northwest Territory)Incorporated frontier Americans into the federal systemNorthwest Ordinance 17873-5 territoriesGovernor in charge3 judges appointed by CongressJefferson – when population reached level of smallest state they could apply for statehood
22Search For OrderStruggling economy and divisions between north and south in regards to trade with Britain.Congress printed paper money in war-time 200 million now worthless.State and national debt also existed.Articles prohibited Congress from taxing.National Plan – Hamilton, Madison, Morris5% tax on imported goods sold in states would go towards debt. Not passed because all 13 needed to agree according to Articles.
23Constitutional Reform 1786 – J. Madison and friends look to overhaul the Articles.Key Event – Shays Rebellion – Dan Shays and armed neighbors closed a county courthouse b/c creditors foreclosed on farm mortgages.Nationalists said a strong federal government was necessary.Philadelphia Convention – Spring 1787 – 55 men, 12 states represented, not Rhode IslandThese people were lawyers, merchants, planters – fought in Revolution and served in Congress.
24VA PlanVirginia Plan – James Madison – to be presented by Edmund Randolph the Virginia governor.Federal Government could veto state lawsNational legislature of two houses – one elected directly by the people, the other chosen by the first house from nominations from the state legislatureBased on population3 branch system (Judicial, Legislative, Executive)
25NJ Plan William Patterson of NJ Only NJ, NY, DE approved Unicameral ideas with each state receiving one voteCongress could Tax and Regulate TradeOnly NJ, NY, DE approvedPatterson feared that in the VA plan small states would loose their identity.
26The Great Compromise Upper House – Senate – equal representation Lower House – House of Reps – based on populationLower house can initiate money bills3/5th compromise – 5 slaves = 3 white votersElected President chosen by electoral college (body of men in each state chosen by voters)2nd largest vote getter would be VPPresidential powers – Veto, Nominate JudgesBill of Rights passed Sept. 25, Ratified December 15, 1791 by ¾ of the states.