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The Republican Experiment

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1 The Republican Experiment
A.P. U.S. History Mr. Krueger

2 Republicanism Concept that ultimate political authority is vested in the citizens of the nation. The character of republican government was dependent on the civic virtue of its citizens to preserve the nation from corruption and moral decay.

3 From Monarchy to Republic
The term Republican was more powerful in the 18th century than the 21st century The American people had taken the responsibility of founding an elective system of government A republic government demanded a high degree of public morality. Why? If luxury and prodigality were substituted for virtue and economy, problems would exist.

4 The Key The spread of Protestant Evangelicalism was essential to maintaining a sense of order. The thought – God promised progress and prosperity to the republic Population increases New Houses Land Clearing Industrial Development Americans will divide over liberty and order Goodness must overtake wealth for success in America

5 Discussion Where do women and blacks fit into this new society?
What demands does liberty impose upon the new government? What does the Republic need of its citizens to survive? Who were the early leaders that ensured success?

6 Social-Political Reform
Americans end any aristocratic presence, and special privilege related to noble birth G. Washington and other officials founded the Society of Cincinnati – a membership passed from father to son in 1783. Some felt this would destroy civil liberty. It was referred to as hereditary peerage. G. Washington established bylaws and reforms – the crisis passed. Titles such as esquire and the wearing of white wigs were ended (English Customs) The appearance of equality was more important than achievement. War was waged against the Monarchy – should not have classes visibly distinguishable. States abolish primogeniture.

7 Social-Political Reform
Lowering of property requirements for voting privilege was encouraged. Pennsylvania and Georgia allowed all white male tax payers to vote, and all other states lowered requirements, with the exception of Massachusetts. J. Adams exclaimed that if states went too far women might receive rights and men without a farthing might have equal vote. As settlers moved to the frontier they were still recognized in their state legislature. State Capitals also moved west to make meetings easier for legislatures.

8 Social-Political Reforms
Post independence Americans reexamined the relationship between church and state Thomas Jefferson believed that all should have free expression of religious beliefs He sought disestablishment of the Anglican Church They had received pre-revolution tax money 1786 – Virginia cut ties between church and state Other states disestablished the Anglican Church, but in Massachusetts and New Hampshire Congregational Churches still enjoyed special status Americans supported toleration, but tended to oppose philosophers who challenged Christian values

9 African Americans in the New Republic
Slavery contradicts republican principle. How do they allow this? During the revolution abolitionist feelings spread Issue: Liberty was demanded from England, yet we enslaved several 100,000 Africans African Americans constantly reminded law makers that they had the right to liberty New Hampshire – 19 blacks called themselves the “Natives of Africa” and reminded legislatures how detestable slavery was. Benjamin Banneker – Maryland’s African American astronomer and mathematician Philip Wheatley – Boston’s celebrated African muse-recognized poet even in Europe

10 African Americans in the New Republic
T. Jefferson – “Our black brethren have talents equal to those of other colors” In northern states slaves had no practical use and new immigrants resented competing for jobs with slaves Leads to anti-slavery societies Ben Franklin organized a group called “The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held” (Philadelphia) John Jay and Alexander Hamilton founded the Manumission Society (1785 New York)

11 Discussion What differences lead to the divide between cultural outlooks on slavery in the north and south of the United States? In areas that prohibit slavery, are African Americans equal? What did Eli Whitney invent in 1793 that compounded the need for slaves in the south?

12 Rethinking Gender Revolution accelerated change in family structure
Pre-revolution – fathers were the patriarchs – unlimited power in families Many novels written on this – discussed how women were innocent victims of unreformed males – “Pamela and Clarissa” Things change as women make demands of Republic and husbands Abigail Adams told her husband to remember the ladies at the meetings of the Continental Congress New idea: if virtue was important, mothers need teach these values to their children and instruct their husbands in proper behavior Women must share virtue and prudence

13 Rethinking Gender Educated Women were more successful and needed an education equal to men Divorce became more common New opportunities Women’s organizations Running family farms and businesses New Jersey women who owned property could vote Repealed in Reason – their votes determined an election outcome. Some gains, but they remain central to home life.

14 Lessons of Republicanism
May 1776 – Second Continental Congress urges states to adopt constitutions Rhode Island and Connecticut had Republican government by virtue of their 17th century charters Some early constitutions were experimental and later rewritten. After independence Americans demanded state constitutions to completely explain: Rights of people Power of the rulers

15 Natural Rights State Constitution authors thought men and women possessed certain rights which government had no control 8 State constitutions contained a Declaration of Rights 3 fundamental freedoms Religion Speech Press They protected from: Unlawful searches Unlawful seizures Upheld trial by jury

16 Governors? State Constitutions reduced power of governor
Some states eliminated the position, or the president replaced it. Governors were controlled: Almost no political appointment power No veto power (Massachusetts was the exception) Most effective power was in the legislature Penn. and Georgia were unicameral (one house system) Two house systems survived the revolution because it was familiar.

17 Power to the People John Adams took leadership for the new Massachusetts Constitution Framework: Governor (veto power) House Senate Property qualifications for office holders and voters Growing Trend – politicians seem a little poorer, less polished, not so well dressed or educated They were called the people’s men: honest and sincere New republic depended on the virtue of its people.

18 Articles of Confederation
Separate States could not deal with post war issues Conducting war Borrowing Money Regulating Trade Negotiating treaties Central government was needed – founding members feared a strong central government like Britain. John Dickinson and committee created a plan with a strong central government, equal state representation, and taxes based on population – blacks as well as whites. Not well received – instead the Articles of Confederation were ratified in 1777.

19 The Plan Articles provided for: Weaknesses: Single Legislative Body
Representatives selected annually by state legislatures Each state had a single vote in Congress Weaknesses: No independent executive No veto over legislature decisions Congress can’t tax National government could only obtain funds by asking fro state contributions Amendments to the Articles required the approval of all 13 states

20 Opposition Major question – land west of Appalachians
Hoped the British would surrender the lands Virginia and Georgia claimed lands from Atlantic to Pacific, and other colonies felt the same Resolution: 1781 – Virginia agreed to cede land to the confederation. Jefferson worried that western expansion would be difficult to govern It was now thought that the west belonged to the United States, not the separate states.

21 New Departments and Achievements
Created: Dept. of War Foreign Affairs Dept. Finance Dept. Achievements: Brought order to the western settlement (Northwest Territory) Incorporated frontier Americans into the federal system Northwest Ordinance 1787 3-5 territories Governor in charge 3 judges appointed by Congress Jefferson – when population reached level of smallest state they could apply for statehood

22 Search For Order Struggling economy and divisions between north and south in regards to trade with Britain. Congress printed paper money in war-time 200 million now worthless. State and national debt also existed. Articles prohibited Congress from taxing. National Plan – Hamilton, Madison, Morris 5% tax on imported goods sold in states would go towards debt. Not passed because all 13 needed to agree according to Articles.

23 Constitutional Reform
1786 – J. Madison and friends look to overhaul the Articles. Key Event – Shays Rebellion – Dan Shays and armed neighbors closed a county courthouse b/c creditors foreclosed on farm mortgages. Nationalists said a strong federal government was necessary. Philadelphia Convention – Spring 1787 – 55 men, 12 states represented, not Rhode Island These people were lawyers, merchants, planters – fought in Revolution and served in Congress.

24 VA Plan Virginia Plan – James Madison – to be presented by Edmund Randolph the Virginia governor. Federal Government could veto state laws National legislature of two houses – one elected directly by the people, the other chosen by the first house from nominations from the state legislature Based on population 3 branch system (Judicial, Legislative, Executive)

25 NJ Plan William Patterson of NJ Only NJ, NY, DE approved
Unicameral ideas with each state receiving one vote Congress could Tax and Regulate Trade Only NJ, NY, DE approved Patterson feared that in the VA plan small states would loose their identity.

26 The Great Compromise Upper House – Senate – equal representation
Lower House – House of Reps – based on population Lower house can initiate money bills 3/5th compromise – 5 slaves = 3 white voters Elected President chosen by electoral college (body of men in each state chosen by voters) 2nd largest vote getter would be VP Presidential powers – Veto, Nominate Judges Bill of Rights passed Sept. 25, Ratified December 15, 1791 by ¾ of the states.

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