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A Republican Decade.

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Presentation on theme: "A Republican Decade."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Republican Decade

2 Warren G Harding Republican Elected in 1920 Looked like a President
Promised a “Return to Normalcy” Won in a landslide

3 Return to Normalcy Normalcy appealed to Americans
The world seemed anything but normal Revolution in Russia Strikes and bombings at home People feared that political violence was a threat to the U.S.

4 Russian Revolution Czar Nicholas II lost power in 1917
WWI destroyed his rule The new provisional government pledged to stay in the war…even though the people wanted out Some turned to a more radical form of government

5 Russian Revolution Vladimir Lenin and his Bolsheviks take power from the provisional government in 1917 Pulled Russia out of WWI Govmt. then takes control of all farms, industries, lands, and transportation

6 Russian Revolution Civil War breaks out in Russia
Reds (Bulsheviks) v. Whites Reds win The new nation created is named the Soviet Union (Or USSR) Adopted ideology of Communism

7 Communism Government owns all land and property 1 political party
Needs of the country more important than the needs of the individual Lenin sought to spread communism throughout the world After Lenin came Josef Stalin whose brutal policies spread communism and killed tens of millions

8 American Fears Americans feared the spread of Communism
Feared immigrants coming to the U.S. may be communists and other radicals (like anarchists) Communism begins to spread in Europe (Part of Germany, Hungary)

9 American Fears Thousands go on strike in Seattle
Bombs being sent in the mail to government officials Media took advantage of the situation and spread panic Created a Red Scare-fear of communism and other radical ideas Americans wanted communists jailed and deported

10 The Palmer Raids A. Mitchell Palmer-Attorney General of the U.S.
Had bomb mailed to his home Became convinced that radicals were conspiring to overthrow the government Began a campaign to hunt down radicals

11 The Palmer Raids Conducted raids and arrests against suspected subversives Targeted Communists, socialists, and anarchists Arrested thousands, sometimes without evidence Many of them eventually deported

12 The Palmer Raids Palmer said there would be a general strike and widespread bombings on May 1, 1920 Newspapers predicted a major crisis Never happened Palmer lost influence and credibility

13 Sacco and Vanzetti 2 men robbed and killed 2 men working at a shoe factory in 1920 Police arrest 2 Italian Immigrants for the crime Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti Both men were anarchists

14 Sacco and Venzetti Both men were carrying guns
Sacco’s gun matched the one used at the crime Many suspected that they were only arrested because they were immigrants and their political beliefs

15 Sacco and Vanzetti Both men found guilty Trial may have been unfair
Evidence circumstantial Judge used racial slurs Both executed Note: modern technology proved they committed the crime…so don’t feel too bad

16 Labor Strikes Thousands of labor strikes in 1919
Boston police went on strike President Wilson called this a crime against civilization Other notable strike in steel industry and coal mines

17 Motivation for Labor Strikes
Higher cost of living Labor hoped to build on gains won during the war Shorter hours High wages More workers than jobs

18 Strikes Decline Most Americans opposed strikes
Saw them as un-American and prone to violence Distrusted labor unions and the immigrants they represented Lack of support from the Government Economic boom brought higher wages

19 Republican Leadership
Red Scare had consequences People believed Republicans could restore stability better than the Democrats Republicans dominated all 3 branches of government throughout the 20s

20 The Harding Presidency
Made some good cabinet appointments Herbert Hoover- Secretary of Commerce Charles Evan Hughes-Secretary of State Andrew Mellon-Secretary of the Treasury

21 The Harding Presidency
Also showed some poor judgment Gave jobs to a bunch of his friends-The Ohio Gang Inexperienced Incompetent Dishonest

22 Foreign Policy Isolationist- avoid economic and political alliances with foreign countries Opposed League of Nations Wanted to establish global peace and stability Called for disarmament

23 Foreign Policy Promoted expansion of trade
Passed Fordney McCumber Tariff to protect American business at home Scaled back British and French debts so they could better pay them The Tariff made it very difficult for European nations to sell products to the U.S., raise money, and pay off their debt

24 Foreign Policy Wanted to help German economy recover
Approved Dawes Plan Set a payment schedule Reorganized German national bank Approved a loan to Germany

25 Domestic Issues U.S. became more Nativist after WWI Why
Patriotism- believed foreigners could never be loyal to the U.S. Religion- Protestants, Catholics, and Jews could not see eye to eye Urban conditions- urban problems blamed on immigrants Jobs-immigrants were taking them RedScare

26 Domestic Policy 1921 law passed to restrict immigration
Placed a quota on immigrants representing certain ethnic groups or nations

27 Teapot Dome Scandal Harding not involved…but his people were
Albert B. Fall (Secretary of the Interior) secretly gave oil drilling rights on government property to 2 private oil companies Fall received $300,000 in illegal payments and gifts in return

28 Silent Cal Harding dies in August 1923
Calvin Coolidge becomes President Believer in business “The business of the American people is business.”

29 Laissez faire Did not want government to interfere with business
Lowered taxes Did not even support government relief for disaster victims Coolidge was criticized for this, but the economy boomed under Coolidge

30 Kellogg-Briand Pact 15 nations pledged not to use the threat of force in their dealings with other nations 60 nations eventually joined the pact Basically made war illegal Unrealistic and unenforceable

31 1928 Election Coolidge decides not to run
Herbert Hoover (R) wins the Presidency.

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