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Shattering the Union: The Coming of the Civil War John M. Sacher University of Central Florida

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Presentation on theme: "Shattering the Union: The Coming of the Civil War John M. Sacher University of Central Florida"— Presentation transcript:

1 Shattering the Union: The Coming of the Civil War John M. Sacher University of Central Florida

2 The Questions Was the Civil War inevitable? Was the Civil War inevitable? Better question, when did it become inevitable? Better question, when did it become inevitable? How did Lincoln get elected? Or, why would someone vote Republican? How did Lincoln get elected? Or, why would someone vote Republican?

3 Because northerners were abolitionists. No.

4 1860 Republican Platform Slavery in the States the right of each state, to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any state or territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes the right of each state, to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends, and we denounce the lawless invasion by armed force of the soil of any state or territory, no matter under what pretext, as among the gravest of crimes.

5 Slave Power Conspiracy

6 Abraham Lincoln, 1858 “... when we see a lot of framed timbers, different portions of which we know have been gotten out at different times and places, and by different workmen – Stephen [Douglas], Franklin [Pierce], Roger [Taney], and James [Buchanan], for instance; and when we see these timbers joined together, and see they exactly make the frame of a house or a mill... and not a piece too many or too few, -- not omitting even the scaffolding, -- or if a single piece be lacking, we see the place in the frame exactly fitted and prepared to yet bring such piece in -- in such a case we feel it impossible not to believe that Stephen and Franklin, and Roger and James, all understood one another from the beginning and all worked upon a common plan or draft drawn before the first blow was struck.” (in “House Divided” Speech, 1858)

7 The Numbers From Washington’s election until 1850…. Southern slaveholders occupied the: From Washington’s election until 1850…. Southern slaveholders occupied the: Presidency 50 of 62 years Presidency 50 of 62 years Speaker of the House 41 of 62 years Speaker of the House 41 of 62 years Chairman of House Ways and Means 42 of 62 years Chairman of House Ways and Means 42 of 62 years 18 of 31 Supreme Court Justices were southern slaveholders 18 of 31 Supreme Court Justices were southern slaveholders All of this despite the fact that northerners are the majority in the U.S. All of this despite the fact that northerners are the majority in the U.S.

8 The Territories The Missouri Compromise The Compromise of 1850

9 Republican Platform Slavery in the Territories 8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom... we deny the authority of congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States. 8. That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom... we deny the authority of congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to slavery in any territory of the United States. This policy was called Free Soil This policy was called Free Soil

10 Stephen Douglas “The Little Giant”

11 Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854

12 Voting on the Kansas Nebraska Act US House—1854 Total Votes Total Votes 113 In favor 100 Against Whigs Democrats Whigs Democrats For AgainstFor Against North South Total South 69 for 9 against Total South 69 for 9 against Total North 44 for 91 against (only 7 of these 44 are re-elected) Total North 44 for 91 against (only 7 of these 44 are re-elected)

13 “Bleeding Kansas” aka Popular Sovereignty in action

14 Voting in Kansas, 1855 Eligible Voters approx. 3,000 Free Soil Votes 791 Proslavery Votes ??? ??? Judged fraudulent

15 Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts “The Crime Against Kansas” (May 1856)

16 The Sumner Brooks Affair, 1856

17 Down in Florida...

18 The Republican Party Candidates, 1856 “Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men, Fremont”

19 1856 Presidential Election James Buchanan

20 Dred Scott, Slave Chief Justice Roger Taney

21 Republican Platform re: Dred Scott 7. That the new dogma that the Constitution of its own force carries slavery into any or all of the territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy That the new dogma that the Constitution of its own force carries slavery into any or all of the territories of the United States, is a dangerous political heresy...

22 Abraham Lincoln, 1858 “... when we see a lot of framed timbers, different portions of which we know have been gotten out at different times and places, and by different workmen – Stephen [Douglas], Franklin [Pierce], Roger [Taney], and James [Buchanan], for instance; and when we see these timbers joined together, and see they exactly make the frame of a house or a mill... and not a piece too many or too few, -- not omitting even the scaffolding, -- or if a single piece be lacking, we see the place in the frame exactly fitted and prepared to yet bring such piece in -- in such a case we feel it impossible not to believe that Stephen and Franklin, and Roger and James, all understood one another from the beginning and all worked upon a common plan or draft drawn before the first blow was struck.” (in “House Divided” Speech, 1858)

23


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