Party politics What is characteristic of a political party? What is a faction? How have party’s in Ohio developed and changed?
Party system theory Factions sort themselves into two distinct parties to address the urgent issues of the day A crisis that cuts across party lines causes the major parties to fracture A realignment of factions or interests into two “new” parties occurs
Party system theory 1st party system (1796-1814) –Federalist v Republican 2nd party system (1832-1850) –Democrat v Whig 3rd party system (1856-1890) –Republican v Democrat 4th party system (1896-1932) –Republican v Democrat
The election of 1804 Republicans sweep the election of state offices Federalists destroyed as a state-wide entity, although they remain strong in the southeast and individual Federalist gain office Run-up to the War of 1812 pushes all Ohioans into pro-War, Republican camp
An “era of good feelings”? In most counties, factional politics comes to fore “Party” as an organizing principle nearly disappears Republicans dominated state politics until sectional crisis of 1820 Republican block began to fracture before the Jacksonian revolution –National Republicans (followers of John Q. Adams)
Characteristics Few “swing” counties (5/75). Handful of marginal counties (10/75). Victory hinged upon –Uniting party factions –Building party organization. –Turnout. The more things change, the more they stay the same.
The 3rd Party System Collapse of the Whig party over sectional differences Consolidation of the anti-Democrats into the Fusion party (1854) in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act –Whigs, Free Soil Creation of the Republican party
Thomas Corwin 1794-1865 An attorney, raised in Lebanon Ohio Five terms in House Governor, 1840-1842 Senate, 1844-1850 Popular orator (Wagon Boy), anti-War Whig, anti-slavery but sought to preserve the Union during 1858-1860 Ambassador to Mexico
Sources Donald Ratcliffe, The Politics of Long Division. The Birth of the Second Party System in Ohio (Columbus: OSU Press, 2000). Donald Ratcliffe, Party Politics in Frontier Ohio. Democratic Politics in Ohio, 1793- 1821 (Columbus: OSU Press, 1998). Stephen Maizlish, The Rise of American Democracy (Kent State University Press, 1988).
Internet resources http://www.ohiohistory.org/onlinedoc/oh government/governors/index.htmlhttp://www.ohiohistory.org/onlinedoc/oh government/governors/index.html http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/