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Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Chapter 28.

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Presentation on theme: "Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Chapter 28."— Presentation transcript:

1 Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Chapter 28

2 Progressive Reformers  Progressives wanted government actively involved protecting poor and needy  Attacked monopolies, corruption, inefficiency and social injustice  Wanted the government to fix problems  Mostly middle class  Wanted to stop power of wealthy, but limit radicalization of poor and labor unions by reducing problems of poverty and workers  Foundations for Progressive Movement  Political roots related to Greenback Labor Party and Populist Party  Wealth Against the Commonwealth – Henry Demarest Lloyd against Standard Oil  The Theory of the Leisure Class – Thorstein Veblen – attacked new rich and conspicuous consumption  Industrialists had consolidated money and power  Social and economic problems seen as too complex for “laissez-faire” to succeed  Reform Mayors  Hazen Pingree – Detroit  Samuel “Golden Rule” Jones – Toledo  Political machines resisted reform Hazen Pingree Samuel Jones

3 Jacob Riis “How the Other Half Lives” Living Conditions of Poor Lincoln Steffens “The Shame of the Cities” Corruption in City Politics Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” Conditions of meat packing industry Ida Tarbell wrote articles in McClure’s Magazine Business practices of Standard Oil Frank Norris “The Octopus” Influence of railroads in California Muckrak ers Journalists and novelists who exposed corruption in American society McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, Collier were popular muckraker magazines –not all stories were completely true Socialists, Feminists and believers in social gospel also called for reform Thomas Lawson “Frenzied Finance” Corruption in stock market and insurance industry David G. Phillips “Treason of the Senate” Trusts controlling US Senate

4 Upton Sinclair - The Jungle Unsanitary conditions of meat packing industry Jacob Riis - How the Other Half Lives Living Conditions of the poor Lewis Hine - photographer Conditions of child labor

5 Progressive Art  Theodore Dreiser – wrote novels about wealth, power success and poverty  Ashcan School  Artistic movement that used alleys and common life as themes

6 Election Reform  Direct Primary  People choose candidates, not party conventions  Referendum  Allows legislatures to allow people to vote whether or not they like a law  Initiative  Allows people to propose and pass a law directly  Recall  Allows people to vote out an official in the middle of his term  17 th Amendment  1913 allow direct election of Senators  used to be appointed by State Legislatures  Australian (secret) ballot  Women’s Suffrage  Support was largest in the western states

7 Changes in local and State governments  City Commissions created  Eliminate power of mayor  City Managers  Professional managers hired to run small cities  Robert LaFollette (WI)  Direct primary created  People choose candidates, not bosses  Restrictions on lobbyists  Supervision of banks  Civil Service reform  Other states follow Wisconsin example  Oregon; Hiram Johnson (CA); Charles Evans Hughes (NY)  Reform Laws  Child labor laws  Workmen’s compensation  Insurance for sick, disable, elderly  Minimum Wage  Prohibition of alcohol  Tax laws changed to put more burden on rich and corporations

8 Progressive Women  Settlement Houses- Jane Addams – Hull House  Allowed women to get involved in public life  Exposed women to problems of city  Encouraged women to meet and be active in community  Women argued improving society was extension of their “maternal” duties  Women led child labor reform, factory safety, temperance, food safety, health reform, Florence Kelley  Women’s Trade Union League; National Consumers League, Children’s Bureau; Women’s Bureau  Supreme Court Cases  Muller v Oregon (1908)  Ruled state laws protecting women in workplace were constitutional  Establish government right to regulate workplace  Lochner v New York (1905)  Ruled against state law establishing 10 hour work day for bakers  First of several Supreme Court decisions against progressive reforms  Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911)  Workers died in fire because exits were locked  Led to many laws regulating working conditions and sweatshops

9 TR  Became President when McKinley was assassinated  Grew up wealthy in Long Island  Very physical, avid hunter  Increased power of Presidency  Loose construction  Bully Pulpit  Used office of Presidency to influence policies  Square Deal  Three C’s  Control corporations; consumer protection; conservation of natural resources  Supposed to create a fair society for labor, capital and public  Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)  Coal needed for heat,  Workers went on strike for better conditions and higher pay  Roosevelt force arbitration – threatened federal takeover of mines  arbitration – two sides present problem to impartial third party who makes a compromise decision  previous presidents would have broken strike for business

10 Good Trusts vs. Bad Trusts  Department of Commerce and Labor  Created in 1903 to regulate and judge business practices  Bad Trusts  Hurt the public  Ended competition in industry  Should be broken up  Good Trusts  Solid business that beat its rivals fairly  Makes good products at fair prices  Should be regulated  Elkins Act (1903)  Gave fines if railroads offered rebates  Hepburn Act (1906)  Increased power of Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad related businesses  Banned rebates and free passes  Allowed shippers to challenge unfair rates by railroads and for ICC to nullify unfair rates

11 “Trust-Busting”  Northern Securities Case (1904)  Northern Securities was a holding company that got control of railroads in Northwest run by JP Morgan and James Hill  Charged high rates to consumers  TR used Sherman Antitrust Act to break the monopoly  Supreme Court ordered Northern Securities to be dissolved  First time government broke a trust  TR also busted beef, sugar, fertilizer, harvesters trusts as well  TR believed in regulating, not necessarily fragmenting business  Busted trusts to demonstrate government superiority over business and scare business into behaving fairly

12 Meat Inspection Act (1906) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)  The Jungle by Upton Sinclair  novel written that exposed miseries of workers and unsanitary conditions of slaughterhouses  Led to demand for reform of meat production  Sinclair wanted to spur labor reform but got food reform  “aimed for heart but got the stomach”  Meat Inspection Act  Allows inspection of meat shipped interstate  Pure Food and Drug Act  Requires labels listing contents to be put on food and drugs

13 Conservation  Conservation  Preserve and control use of natural lands and resources  Wanted to protect rivers and forests  Conflict exists between those who want to use resources “intelligently” vs. those who want nature left untouched  Forest Reserve Act (1891)  Allowed creation of national parks and reserves  Carey Act (1894)  Gave states land if it was irrigated  Newlands Reclamation Act (1902)  Money from sale of public land used to make irrigation, dams and canals  Made western land valuable for farming  Money made from farms went into new projects  Popular support for conservation came from Boy Scouts, Sierra Club and books like Jack London’s Call of the Wild  TR began process of setting aside land for national parks and reserves  Turned 150 million acres of land into national forests and parks

14 Reaction to TR reform  Panic of 1907  Economy drops, some blame TR reforms  TR accused trusts of creating a panic to force the government to relent  Aldrich-Vreeland Act (1908) allowed for the issuance of emergency currency  TR as socialist  Opponents called TR socialist  TR did not believe in government ownership of business  TR opposed predatory wealth  Tried to limit extremes of wealth and poverty in capitalism  TR pledged not to run again in 1908  Named William Howard Taft as his preferred successor and Taft won over Bryan (Democrat) and Eugene V Debs (socialist)  Taft was not as politically capable as TR

15 Taft Presidency  Dollar Diplomacy  Washington encouraged American businesses to invest in nations that supported American interests  Especially Far East and Panama Canal  American dollar, not military would protect US interests  Efforts were not very successful in Asia, resulted in necessity for military intervention in Latin America to protect US business interests  Trustbusting  Taft was more aggressive than TR going after Trusts  Standard Oil was dissolved during his presidency  TR and Taft split over Taft’s pursuit of US Steel  Payne-Aldrich Bill (1909)  Taft supported tariff bill that did not reduce tariffs as progressives had hoped  Conservation  Taft supported Richard Ballinger of Interior over Gifford Pinchot of Forestry allowing corporate development of federal land  Taft’s moves created split in Republican party

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