Presentation on theme: "12 Reconstruction and Its Effects QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION The Politics of Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:
12 Reconstruction and Its Effects QUIT CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE VISUAL SUMMARY SECTION The Politics of Reconstruction 1 SECTION Reconstructing Society 2 SECTION The Collapse of Reconstruction 3 MAP
12 Reconstruction and Its Effects HOME CHAPTER OBJECTIVE To understand the political struggle, accomplishments, and failures of Reconstruction in the years following the Civil War
12 W I T H H I S T O R Y I N T E R A C T What goals should the government set to reconstruct the South? Examine the Issues The year is 1865, and at last the Civil War is over. The South’s primary labor system, slavery, has been abolished. About 4.5 million African Americans now have their freedom but lack money, property, education, and opportunity. Southern states are beginning the process of readmission to the Union, but the effects of war continue to be felt throughout the South. Rail lines are unusable. Farms, plantations, and factories lie in ruins. In what ways can the South rebuild its economy? How can Northern resources help the South? HOME What can the government do to assist African Americans? Reconstruction and Its Effects
12 The United StatesThe World 1864 Confederacy surrenders at Appomattox. 1865 Andrew Johnson becomes president after Lincoln’s assassination. 1866 President Johnson presses for moderate Reconstruction policies. 1866 Austro-Prussian War is fought. 1868 Congress impeaches President Johnson. Ulysses S. Grant is elected president. 1869 Mohandas K. Gandhi is born in India. TIME LINE HOME continued... 1867 U.S. buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. 1867 First South African diamond field is discovered. Reconstruction and Its Effects
12 The United StatesThe World 1870 Unification of Italy is completed. 1872 Horace Greeley runs for president as a Liberal Republican. President Grant is reelected. 1874 British declare Gold Coast of Africa a colony. 1876 Hayes-Tilden presidential election results in deadlock. TIME LINE HOME 1875 France’s National Assembly votes to continue the Third Republic. 1871 U.S. and Great Britain sign Treaty of Washington. 1871 Kaiser Wilhelm I unifies Germany. 1877 Federal troops withdraw from the South. Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated. Reconstruction and Its Effects
1 The Politics of Reconstruction Congress opposed Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction and instead implemented its own plan to rebuild the South. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME
1 The Politics of Reconstruction OVERVIEW Congress opposed Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction and instead implemented its own plan to rebuild the South. Reconstruction was an important step in African Americans’ struggle for civil rights. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME Andrew Johnson Thaddeus Stevens Wade-Davis Bill Freedmen’s Bureau Radical Republicans Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment black codes impeach Reconstruction ASSESSMENT
1 The Politics of Reconstruction ASSESSMENT Presidential ReconstructionCongressional Reconstruction 1. Look at the chart to help organize your thoughts. List several features of presidential Reconstruction and congressional Reconstruction. continued... HOME Punish slaveholders Congress should lead Reconstruction Blacks needed land, the vote, and legal protection to effect Reconstruction Passage of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and Reconstruction Act Executive branch should lead Reconstruction Return South to the Union quickly States to rejoin the Union if they withdrew their secession, swore allegiance to the Union, annulled Confederate war debts Ratify the Thirteenth Amendment
1 The Politics of Reconstruction 2. Describe how Reconstruction might have been different if Abraham Lincoln had lived. ANSWER Presidential reconstruction may have been viewed more favorably because of Lincoln’s stature and his increased wartime powers. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
1 The Politics of Reconstruction 3. What was the primary focus of the major Reconstruction legislation? ANSWER Granting and providing legal protection of African Americans’ civil rights HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
1 The Politics of Reconstruction 4. Do you think the Radical Republicans were justified in impeaching President Johnson? Why or why not? Think About: ANSWER Yes: Johnson was not carrying out his constitutional obligation to enforce the Reconstruction Act. For instance he removed military officers who attempted to enforce the act. No: Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, which Johnson believed to be unconstitutional. When Johnson forced a test of this act, the House impeached him. the controversy over Reconstruction policies the meaning of the Tenure of Office Act Johnson’s vetoes HOME ASSESSMENT End of Section 1
2 Reconstructing Society Various groups contributed to the rebuilding of Southern society after the war. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME MAP
2 Reconstructing Society HOME OVERVIEW Various groups contributed to the rebuilding of Southern society after the war. Many African-American institutions, including colleges and churches, were established during Reconstruction. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT Hiram Revels sharecropping tenant farming scalawag carpetbagger MAP
ProblemAttempted Solution 2 Reconstructing Society 1. List five problems facing the South after the Civil War and at least one attempted solution for each one. continued... HOME ASSESSMENT Former slaves separated from their families Public works programs Search for family members New schools established Physical devastation Lack of education Lack of land Southern Homestead Act Labor shortage Sharecropping or tenant farming MAP
2 Reconstructing Society 2. How did the Civil War weaken the Southern economy? Give examples to support your answer. ANSWER It destroyed the South’s infrastructure, including bridges and roads. devastated the population devalued property increased personal and government debts increased taxes limited land available for freedmen HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
2 Reconstructing Society 3. Thaddeus Stevens believed that giving land to former slaves was more important than giving them the vote. Do you agree or disagree? Why? ANSWER Agree—because freed persons needed their own land in order to gain economic independence. Disagree—because the right to vote gave freed men the power to change society’s laws. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
2 Reconstructing Society 4. Which accomplishment of African Americans during Reconstruction do you consider most significant? Explain your choice. Think About: ANSWER Churches: controlled by African Americans, ministers emerged as leaders Schools: increased African American literacy Political involvement: power to attain equal rights the development of a free African-American community the lingering effects of slavery HOME ASSESSMENT opportunities for leadership End of Section 2
3 The Collapse of Reconstruction Southern opposition to Radical Reconstruction, along with economic problems in the North, ended Reconstruction. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT KEY IDEA HOME
3 The Collapse of Reconstruction HOME TERMS & NAMES Compromise of 1877 panic of 1873 Samuel J. Tilden Ku Klux Klan (KKK) Rutherford B. Hayes home rule redemption ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW Southern opposition to Radical Reconstruction, along with economic problems in the North, ended Reconstruction. The failure of Congress and the Supreme Court to protect the rights of African Americans during Reconstruction delayed blacks’ achievement of full civil rights by over a century. MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW
3 The Collapse of Reconstruction 1. Look at the time line below to help organize your thoughts. List the major events that ended Reconstruction. continued... HOME ASSESSMENT 1870–1871 Enforcement Acts passed. 1866 Ku Klux Klan founded. 1872 Crédit Mobilier 1872 Amnesty Act passed. 1873 Panic 1876 Hayes elected president. Event Two Event One Event FourEvent Six Event ThreeEvent FiveEvent Seven 1873 Supreme Court issued Slaughterhouse rulings.
3 The Collapse of Reconstruction 2. What were the positive and negative effects of Reconstruction? ANSWER Negatives—Democrats overthrew Radical reforms and curtailed African Americans’ civil rights; many African Americans and poor whites were trapped in a cycle of poverty due to sharecropping; Positives—African Americans founded churches, schools, and volunteer groups; they also displayed political and social leadership that inspired their descendants. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
3 The Collapse of Reconstruction 3. During Reconstruction, was the presidency weak or strong? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSE: Weak—During Reconstruction, presidents were hampered in their leadership by the following: poor relations with Congress, failure to use the power of their office, political inexperience, and economic turmoil. HOME ASSESSMENT continued...
3 The Collapse of Reconstruction 4. Do you think the political deal to settle the election of 1876 was an appropriate solution? Explain why or why not. Think About: ANSWER Yes: Each group was satisfied with its gains: The Republicans got the presidency, and the Democrats were able to put an end to Radical Reconstruction in the South. No: The presidency should not be negotiable. The candidate who wins the popular vote should become President. the causes of the conflict over the election HOME ASSESSMENT other possible solutions to the controversy the impact of the settlement End of Section 3