Presentation on theme: "12 Reconstruction and Its Effects The Politics of Reconstruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects The Politics of Reconstruction QUIT12C H A P T E RReconstruction and Its EffectsCHAPTER OBJECTIVEINTERACT WITH HISTORYTIME LINESECTION1The Politics of ReconstructionSECTION2Reconstructing SocietyMAPSECTION3The Collapse of ReconstructionVISUAL SUMMARY
2 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects HOME12C H A P T E RReconstruction and Its EffectsCHAPTER OBJECTIVETo understand the political struggle, accomplishments, and failures of Reconstruction in the years following the Civil War
3 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects I N T E R A C T HOME12C H A P T E RReconstruction and Its EffectsI N T E R A C TW I T H H I S T O R YThe year is 1865, and at last the Civil War is over. The South’s primary labor system, slavery, has been abolished. About 4.5 million African Americans now have their freedom but lack money, property, education, and opportunity. Southern states are beginning the process of readmission to the Union, but the effects of war continue to be felt throughout the South. Rail lines are unusable. Farms, plantations, and factories lie in ruins.What goals should the government set to reconstruct the South?Examine the Issues• How can Northern resources help the South?• In what ways can the South rebuild its economy?• What can the government do to assist African Americans?
4 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects The United States The World HOME12C H A P T E RReconstruction and Its EffectsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1864 Confederacy surrenders at Appomattox.1865 Andrew Johnson becomes president after Lincoln’s assassination.1866 President Johnson presses for moderate Reconstruction policies.1866 Austro-Prussian War is fought.1867 U.S. buys Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million.1867 First South African diamond field is discovered.1868 Congress impeaches President Johnson. Ulysses S. Grant is elected president.1869 Mohandas K. Gandhi is born in India.continued . . .
5 12 Reconstruction and Its Effects The United States The World HOME C H A P T E RReconstruction and Its EffectsTIME LINEThe United StatesThe World1870 Unification of Italy is completed.1871 U.S. and Great Britain sign Treaty of Washington.1871 Kaiser Wilhelm I unifies Germany.1872 Horace Greeley runs for president as a Liberal Republican. President Grant is reelected.1874 British declare Gold Coast of Africa a colony.1875 France’s National Assembly votes to continue the Third Republic.1876 Hayes-Tilden presidential election results in deadlock.1877 Federal troops withdraw from the South. Rutherford B. Hayes is inaugurated.
6 The Politics of Reconstruction S E C T I O N1The Politics of ReconstructionHOMEKEY IDEACongress opposed Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction and instead implemented its own plan to rebuild the South.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
7 The Politics of Reconstruction S E C T I O N1The Politics of ReconstructionHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWCongress opposed Lincoln’s and Johnson’s plans for Reconstruction and instead implemented its own plan to rebuild the South.Reconstruction was an important step in African Americans’ struggle for civil rights.TERMS & NAMES• Andrew Johnson• Thaddeus Stevens• Wade-Davis Bill• Freedmen’s Bureau• Radical Republicans• Fourteenth Amendment• Fifteenth Amendment• black codes• impeach• ReconstructionASSESSMENT
8 1 The Politics of Reconstruction S E C T I O N1The Politics of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the chart to help organize your thoughts.List several features of presidential Reconstruction and congressional Reconstruction.Presidential ReconstructionCongressional ReconstructionExecutive branch should lead ReconstructionReturn South to the Union quicklyStates to rejoin the Union if they withdrew their secession, swore allegiance to the Union, annulled Confederate war debtsRatify the Thirteenth AmendmentPunish slaveholdersCongress should lead ReconstructionBlacks needed land, the vote, and legal protection to effect ReconstructionPassage of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments and Reconstruction Actcontinued . . .
9 The Politics of Reconstruction S E C T I O N1The Politics of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT2. Describe how Reconstruction might have been different if Abraham Lincoln had lived.ANSWERPresidential reconstruction may have been viewed more favorably because of Lincoln’s stature and his increased wartime powers.continued . . .
10 The Politics of Reconstruction S E C T I O N1The Politics of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT3. What was the primary focus of the major Reconstruction legislation?ANSWERGranting and providing legal protection of African Americans’ civil rightscontinued . . .
11 The Politics of Reconstruction S E C T I O N1The Politics of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT4. Do you think the Radical Republicans were justified in impeaching President Johnson? Why or why not? Think About:• the controversy over Reconstruction policies• the meaning of the Tenure of Office Act• Johnson’s vetoesANSWERYes: Johnson was not carrying out his constitutional obligation to enforce the Reconstruction Act. For instance he removed military officers who attempted to enforce the act.No: Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, which Johnson believed to be unconstitutional. When Johnson forced a test of this act, the House impeached him.End of Section 1
12 Reconstructing Society S E C T I O N2Reconstructing SocietyMAPHOMEKEY IDEAVarious groups contributed to the rebuilding of Southern society after the war.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
13 Reconstructing Society S E C T I O N2Reconstructing SocietyMAPHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWVarious groups contributed to the rebuilding of Southern society after the war.Many African-American institutions, including colleges and churches, were established during Reconstruction.TERMS & NAMES• Hiram Revels• sharecropping• tenant farming• scalawag• carpetbaggerASSESSMENT
14 Reconstructing Society S E C T I O N2Reconstructing SocietyMAPHOMEASSESSMENT1. List five problems facing the South after the Civil War and at least one attempted solution for each one.ProblemAttempted SolutionPhysical devastationPublic works programsFormer slaves separated from their familiesSearch for family membersLack of educationNew schools establishedLack of landSouthern Homestead ActLabor shortageSharecropping or tenant farmingcontinued . . .
15 Reconstructing Society S E C T I O N2Reconstructing SocietyHOMEASSESSMENT2. How did the Civil War weaken the Southern economy? Give examples to support your answer.ANSWERIt destroyed the South’s infrastructure, including bridges and roads.devastated the populationdevalued propertyincreased personal and government debtsincreased taxeslimited land available for freedmencontinued . . .
16 Reconstructing Society S E C T I O N2Reconstructing SocietyHOMEASSESSMENT3. Thaddeus Stevens believed that giving land to former slaves was more important than giving them the vote. Do you agree or disagree? Why?ANSWERAgree—because freed persons needed their own land in order to gain economic independence.Disagree—because the right to vote gave freed men the power to change society’s laws.continued . . .
17 Reconstructing Society S E C T I O N2Reconstructing SocietyHOMEASSESSMENT4. Which accomplishment of African Americans during Reconstruction do you consider most significant? Explain your choice. Think About:• the development of a free African-American community• the lingering effects of slavery• opportunities for leadershipANSWERChurches: controlled by African Americans, ministers emerged as leadersSchools: increased African American literacyPolitical involvement: power to attain equal rightsEnd of Section 2
18 The Collapse of Reconstruction S E C T I O N3The Collapse of ReconstructionHOMEKEY IDEASouthern opposition to Radical Reconstruction, along with economic problems in the North, ended Reconstruction.OVERVIEWASSESSMENT
19 The Collapse of Reconstruction S E C T I O N3The Collapse of ReconstructionHOMEOVERVIEWMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWSouthern opposition to Radical Reconstruction, along with economic problems in the North, ended Reconstruction.The failure of Congress and the Supreme Court to protect the rights of African Americans during Reconstructiondelayed blacks’ achievement of fullcivil rights by over a century.TERMS & NAMES• Compromise of 1877• panic of 1873• Samuel J. Tilden• Ku Klux Klan (KKK)• Rutherford B. Hayes• home rule• redemptionASSESSMENT
20 The Collapse of Reconstruction S E C T I O N3The Collapse of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT1. Look at the time line below to help organize your thoughts. List the major events that ended Reconstruction.1873 Supreme Court issued Slaughterhouse rulings.1870–1871 Enforcement Acts passed.1872 Crédit MobilierEvent TwoEvent OneEvent FourEvent SixEvent ThreeEvent FiveEvent Seven1866 Ku Klux Klan founded.Amnesty Act passed.1873 Panic1876 Hayes elected president.continued . . .
21 The Collapse of Reconstruction S E C T I O N3The Collapse of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT2. What were the positive and negative effects of Reconstruction?ANSWERNegatives—Democrats overthrew Radical reforms and curtailed African Americans’ civil rights; many African Americans and poor whites were trapped in a cycle of poverty due to sharecropping;Positives—African Americans founded churches, schools, and volunteer groups; they also displayed political and social leadership that inspired their descendants.continued . . .
22 The Collapse of Reconstruction S E C T I O N3The Collapse of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT3. During Reconstruction, was the presidency weak or strong?ANSWERPOSSIBLE RESPONSE:Weak—During Reconstruction, presidents were hampered in their leadership by the following: poor relations with Congress, failure to use the power of their office, political inexperience, and economic turmoil.continued . . .
23 The Collapse of Reconstruction S E C T I O N3The Collapse of ReconstructionHOMEASSESSMENT4. Do you think the political deal to settle the election of 1876 was an appropriate solution? Explain why or why not. Think About:• the causes of the conflict over the election• other possible solutions to the controversy• the impact of the settlementANSWERYes: Each group was satisfied with its gains: The Republicans got the presidency, and the Democrats were able to put an end to Radical Reconstruction in the South.No: The presidency should not be negotiable. The candidate who wins the popular vote should become President.End of Section 3