2Important TermsReconstruction – a period of rebuilding of relations between North/South, lasting fromFreedman – freed Southern blacksCarpetbaggers – Northern blacks who migrated to the SouthScalawags – white Southerners who supported Reconstruction
3Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war?3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen?
5Why was Reconstruction Needed? South was in financial and military ruin600,000 soldiers deadAtlanta and Richmond in ruinsSouthern inflation at 9,000%Rail infrastructure in South destroyedWhat to do with Confederate Leadership?A new society not based on slavery was neededStrong negative feelings by both sides still existed - “The Blame Game”
6A Difference of Opinion Different political parties disagreed as to how to deal with the SouthRadical Republicans (Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner) – wanted to punish South (Wade-Davis Bill)Lincoln (Moderate) – wanted speedy elections with generous terms (“10% Plan”) – determined to find a course that united the South w/o alienating itSouthern Democrats – wanted a return to ‘the old days and the old ways’
7President Lincoln’s “10% Plan” Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South.Didn’t consult Congress – wanted to run Reconstruction himself.Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers.When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized.
8Effects of Lincoln’s “10% Plan” 1864 “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, ARFormed prior to end of WarCreated bitter opposition by Radical RepublicansLed to Wade-Davis Bill of 1864
9Wade-Davis Bill (1864)Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH)Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)Pocket VetoPresident LincolnWade-Davis Bill
12AssassinationLincoln’s assassination casts doubt on Reconstruction and gives the Radicals a chance to punish the SouthA political tug-of-war ensued with new president Andrew JohnsonWho would run Reconstruction now?How should Democracy run in the South?Citizenship of Confederate men?Citizenship of Freedmen?
13President Andrew Johnson Jacksonian Democrat.Anti-Aristocrat.White Supremacist.Grew up poor/saw black population as $ threat to poor whites.“This is a country for white men, and by God, as long as I am president, it shall be a government for white men.”
14President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) Johnson’s plan was too conciliatoryPardoned too many Southern leaders w/o punishing themTried hurriedly to bring former Confederate states back into the Union – allowed Southern states to hold elections in 1865Vetoed several key civil rights bills“The President himself is his own worst counsellor, as he is his own worst defender." – Charles Sumner1. Former Civil War officers leading Confederates.2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations.EFFECTS?3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
15Growing Northern Alarm! Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements.Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons and returned their land.Revival of southern defiance.BLACK CODES
16“Black Codes” Purpose: Guarantee stable labor supply now that blacks were emancipated.Restore pre-emancipation system of race relations.Southern policies forced many blacks to become share-croppers [tenant farmers].System of intimidation arose – limited possession of weapons, threatened to take black kids away from poor families
1913th Amendment Ratified in December, 1865. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
20Congress Breaks with the President Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates in 1865 after Johnson allows them to vote.Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.February, 1866 President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill.March, 1866 Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes 1st in U. S. history!!
211866 Congressional Election A referendum on Radical Reconstruction.Johnson made an ill-conceived propaganda tour around the country to push his plan.Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses and began to override many of Johnson’s policies.Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle”
22Radical Plan for Readmission Congress removed civilian governments in the South in 1867 and put the former Confederacy under the rule of the Army.The Army conducted new elections in which the freed slaves could vote, while those who held leading positions under the Confederacy were temporarily denied the vote and could not run for office.Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments.New laws aimed at curbing Johnson’s power.
23Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Command of the Army ActThe President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.Tenure of Office ActThe President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government.A question of the constitutionality of this law.Edwin Stanton
24President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson removed Stanton in February, 1868.Johnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to Radical Reconstruction.The House impeached him on February before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
25The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
26Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction ActRestart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
2714th Amendment Ratified in July, 1868. Overruled Dred Scott and provided a broad definition of citizenship to protect blacks.Prohibited states & local governments from depriving people of their rights w/o taking certain steps.Required each state to provide “Equal Protection” to all people w/in their jurisdiction.Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
28A Change in the Balance of Southern Power StateWhite CitizensFreedmenSC291,000411,000MS353,000436,000LA357,000350,000GA591,000465,000AL596,000437,000VA719,000533,000NC631,000331,000
34Grant Administration Scandals Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption.Inability to foster accountabilityCredit Mobilier Scandal.Whiskey Ring.The “Indian Ring.”
3515th Amendment Ratified in 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
36Rise of White Supremacy Throughout the South, secret societies formWhite Liners, Knights of White Camellia, KKKSadistically tortured and murdered blacksKKK saw itself as THE LAW and had a Christian duty to destroy black authorityGrant declares Martial Law in South Carolina (1871) and arrested/tried suspected KKK leadersGrowing Democratic victories results in Grant losing most of his support
38First Time a Candidate Dies During the Campaign! The Election of 1872Rumors of corruption during Grant’s first term discredit Republicans.Horace Greeley runs as a Democrat/Liberal Republican candidate.Greeley attacked as a fool and a crank.Greeley died on November 29, 1872 during the election!First Time a Candidate Dies During the Campaign!
41The Panic of 1873Stock market collapse in Vienna, then in America with Jay Cooke & Co. leads to 1,000,000 unemployed – recession lasts 6 yearsNorthern whites lose interest in Reconstruction1876 Greenback Party formed & makes gains in congressional races The “Crime of ’73’!
42Northern Support Wanes “Grantism” & corruption.Panic of 1873 [6-year depression].Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars.Key monetary issues:should the government retire $432m worth of “greenbacks” issued during the Civil War.should war bonds be paid back in specie or greenbacks.
43The Civil Rights Act of 1875Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places.Prohibited discrimination in jury selection.Weakness lacked a strong enforcement mechanism.No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
45“The Lost Cause”Southerners see recent setbacks by Republicans as chance to return to “The Old South”Dedicated locations of CW battles and remembering the best of southern ideals (religious virtues, nobility, loyalty men)White Northerners fall in love with Southern “Cause” as way to forget Panic of 1873Southern elections are violent and dissuade blacks from voting w/no reaction from N.
47The Coushatta Massacre Six black officeholders murdered near Coushatta, near New Orleans (1874)Grant overreacts by occupying New OrleansVery unpopular with White NorthernersLeads to Democrats overtaking Congress in 1876 electionAs other acts of violence occur (Miss.), Grant refuses to assist blacksGrant leaves office without clear path or support for Reconstruction
48Supreme Court Reversals To make matters worse, the Court began to undo some of the changes made by Congress1876: Ruled that the federal government could not punish people who violated civil rights of blacks1876: Ruled that blacks could not vote, and gave right to determine who could vote to the statesSouth uses these rulings to institute poll taxes and literacy tests to restrict voting.Violence against blacks increasedThe Court weakened Reconstruction & blocked efforts for blacks to gain full equality
52The Political Crisis of 1877 “Corrupt Bargain” Part II?
53The Political Crisis of 1877 Highly contested election with no clear winner – divided the countryIn secret meetings, Southern Democrats agreed to allow Rutherford B. Hayes to become president if Republicans agreed to end ReconstructionHayes unable to enforce 13th - 15th b/c Democrats blocked military spending throughout 1877/78RESULTS: Blacks move West; White Southerners enforce Black Codes
57Results of Reconstruction Most historians agree as to its failureFailure of gov’t to enforce protections for blacks, rise of white supremacy, and allowing Radicals to run ReconstructionBlacks do not see significant legislation again until 1965 Civil Rights Act“The slave went free; stood a brief moment in the sun; then moved back again toward slavery.” (W.E.B. DuBois)