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Chapter 14 The Gathering Tempest, 1853–1860 Web. Kansas and the Rise of the Republican Party Kansas–Nebraska Act Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 The Gathering Tempest, 1853–1860 Web. Kansas and the Rise of the Republican Party Kansas–Nebraska Act Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 The Gathering Tempest, 1853–1860 Web

2 Kansas and the Rise of the Republican Party Kansas–Nebraska Act Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois Land west of the Missouri to be organized into two territories Kansas west of Missouri; Nebraska west of Iowa and Minnesota Territorial legislatures would decide on slavery Missouri Compromise explicitly repealed Caused firestorm of opposition in North

3 Kansas and the Rise of the Republican Party Kansas and the Rise of the Republican Party (cont) Many opposed any expansion of slavery into the territories One vocal opponent was Abraham Lincoln of Illinois Completed destruction of Whigs as national party Damage began with divisive election of 1852 All Northern Whigs voted against Kansas–Nebraska bill Party completely lost its Southern support Emergence of new Republican Party Hodgepodge of former Whigs, Free-Soilers, antislavery Democrats

4 Immigration and Nativism Significant increase in immigration after million in decade after 1845 Most Roman Catholics Political power of immigrants also increased Coalesced around issues of temperance and schools Irish immigrants particular targets

5 Rise of the “Know Nothings” Emergence of the American Party (Know- Nothings) Supported multifaceted anti-immigrant/nativist agenda Appealed to Northern Whigs who had not already become Republicans Scored big gains in elections in 1854 Redirected by Republicans in 1855 toward cause of antislavery Split along sectional lines over slavery after 1855–1856 Decreasing immigration meant decline in nativism

6 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Immigration to the United States

7 Bleeding Kansas Struggle for control of Kansas became intense after 1854 Border ruffians from Missouri crossed into Kansas to vote illegally for slave government Majority favored free soil and opposed slavery Kansas became the leading issue in politics Two competing legislatures by 1856 Dispute led to caning of Senator Charles Sumner All out violence broke out in Spring of 1856 John Brown’s raid on Pottawatomie Virtual civil war in Kansas territory

8 Election of 1856 Republicans first truly sectional party in American history Anti-slavery and old Whig support for internal improvements Ran John C. Frémont Democrats endorsed popular sovereignty Nominated James Buchanan American Party nominated ex-Whig Millard Fillmore Buchanan elected Allowed South to go on offensive over slavery

9 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Counties Carried by Candidates in the 1856 Presidential Election

10 Dred Scott Case Involved question of whether residence in an anti- slave territory made a slave free Supreme Court heard case Majority of justices from South Declared Missouri Compromise’s ban on slavery in the Territories unconstitutional Hinged on defense/protection of private property Created intense partisan feelings throughout country Intensified, rather than settled, slave controversy

11 Lecompton Constitution Effort to legitimize pro-slavery government and prepare Kansas for entry into Union as a slave state Maneuvered to keep anti-slave settlers from voting to guarantee a constitution that included slavery Buchanan administration recognized pro-slavery constitution, recommended statehood for Kansas Generated controversy in Congress, which eventually defeated statehood measure Issue split Democratic Party and discredited Stephen Douglas with party Aided in election of a Republican president in 1860

12 Economy in the 1850s North becoming industrial More than a decade of unprecedented growth after 1845 Role of slavery in creating distinct “North” and “South” U.S. second-leading industrial producer in the world by later 1850s U.S. pioneered mass production of interchangeable parts Helped by high level of U.S. education South relied increasingly on slavery Region had what some called “colonial” economy “King Cotton” defined region’s economy Defended slave system as better than the free market Writings of George Fitzhugh Labor conditions in North

13 Panic of 1857 Both domestic and international causes Massive unemployment and widespread hardship Prosperity had returned by 1858 Economic crisis intensified sectional hostility South fared better than rest of country North blamed South for blocking tariffs that could have protected Northern industry

14 Free Labor Ideology All work in a free society was honorable Slavery degraded manual labor by equating it with bondage Central component was social mobility Incompatible with slavery Became key feature of Republican party’s platform Buttressed by Hinton Rowan Helper’s The Impending Crisis of the South (1857) Called on non-slaveholding whites to overthrow the slave system Virtually banned in the South Huge impact in North Republican Party even used as campaign propaganda

15 Lincoln–Douglas Debates Over election to U.S. Senate from Illinois in 1858 Lincoln argument that nation could not remain forever half-slave and half-free Douglas professed no interest in slavery per se and defended its existence in the South Lincoln elevated to national prominence Douglas won senate seat but lost favor in South because he failed to vigorously defend the expansion of slavery into the territories Freeport Doctrine

16 John Brown’s Raid at Harpers Ferry Attempt to seize federal arsenal and foment a slave uprising Raid subdued quickly Generated fears of slave insurrection in South Northerners saw Brown as martyr to anti-slavery cause Helped to contribute to unraveling of Union Web

17 Discussion Questions What were the major factors in 1848 that led to the Civil War? Evaluate the events that facilitated “Bleeding Kansas.” Did Kansas foreshadow the coming war? Discuss the Dred Scott case. Was it an example of poor or sound judicial decision making? Examine John Brown’s role in events prior to Was he a hero to a noble cause or a criminal?


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