Presentation on theme: "What you NEED to know about U.S. Presidents USHG Regents Review."— Presentation transcript:
What you NEED to know about U.S. Presidents USHG Regents Review
George Washington (1 st ) 1789-1797 No political party Set precedents: cabinet, 2 term tradition Domestic Policy: Strengthened the federal government (Whiskey Rebellion); against political parties Foreign Policy: Proclamation of Neutrality
Thomas Jefferson (3 rd ) 1801-1809 Democratic-Republican Domestic Policy: favored a limited federal government, opposed Alien and Sedition Acts, opposed Hamilton’s Federalist Party, opposed national bank Foreign Policy: purchased Louisiana Territory from France, doubled the size of the U.S.
James Monroe (5 th ) 1817-1825 National Republican Foreign Policy: the Monroe Doctrine – warned Europe to stay out of affairs in Western Hemisphere – continued policy of isolationism.
Andrew Jackson (7 th ) 1829-1837 Democrat Domestic Policy: used presidential veto power more than any other president (national bank), supported Indian Removal Act, used the spoils system Trail of Tears
Abraham Lincoln (16 th ) 1861-1865 Republican His election caused Southern secession from the union and began the Civil War Increased Presidential powers during war: suspended habeas corpus, spent $ without Congressional approval Emancipation Proclamation – more symbolic than effective. # 1 goal: PRESERVE THE UNION Believed secession was constitutionally impossible Reconstruction Plans: reunify as a country ASAP
Andrew Johnson (17 th ) 1865-1869 Republican Reconstruction Plans – very lenient on former confederates Impeached by the House of Representatives because they did not like his Reconstruction policies (acquitted) 13 th and 14 th Amendments ratified during his presidency
William McKinley (24 th ) 1897-1901 Republican Foreign Policy: period of expansionism and imperialism Spanish-American War
Theodore Roosevelt (25 th ) 1901-1909 Republican Progressive – program called the Square Deal Domestic Policy: trust-buster, conservationist, reformer Foreign Policy: “Big Stick Policy” – use force when necessary (strong navy) Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – U.S. is the police power in Latin America Panama Canal built
William H. Taft (26 th ) 1909-1913 Republican Progressive President Domestic Policy: continued business regulation of Progressive Era Foreign Policy: “Dollar Diplomacy” – emphasized US business investment in Latin America
Woodrow Wilson (27 th ) 1913-1921 Democrat Progressive President – program called “New Freedom” Domestic Policy: economic reform (Clayton Antitrust Act, Federal Reserve Act) Foreign Policy: World War I (“make the world safe for democracy”), 14 Points, League of Nations Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles in favor of isolationist policies
Herbert Hoover (30 th ) 1929-1933 Republican Domestic Policy: dealt with problems of the Great Depression – trickle down theory Opposed direct relief to people, used government resources to try to help businesses, asked people for voluntary help. Used federal troops to put down the “bonus army” of WWI veterans.
Franklin D Roosevelt (31 st ) 1933-1945 (only Pres. to serve more than 2 terms) Democrat Domestic Policy: plan for the Great Depression- the New Deal. Called for direct relief, expanded the power of the federal government, created “alphabet agencies” – New Deal was criticized as too extreme by conservatives Responded with “court-packing scheme” when Supreme Court struck down his programs Foreign Policy: President during WWII – from “cash and carry” to the lend/lease act; “good neighbor policy”, supported Japanese internment camps.
Harry Truman (32 nd ) 1945-1953 Democrat Domestic Policy: desgregated the armed forces and the federal government Foreign Policy: made decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan, Began the policy of containment (Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan) during the Cold War, Entered Korean War
Dwight D. Eisenhower (33 rd ) 1953-1961 Republican Domestic Policy: Federal Interstate Highway Act, sent troops to Little Rock, Arkansas to enforce desegregation Foreign Policy: Eisenhower Doctrine – pledged to support any middle eastern country trying to fight off communism
John F. Kennedy (34 th ) 1961-1963 Democrat (the New Frontier) Domestic Policy: supported efforts in space exploration, dealt minimally with civil rights issues with little success (suggested civil rights bill). Foreign Policy: The Alliance for Progress (containment in Latin America), the Peace Corps, Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis, sent military “advisors” to Vietnam
Lyndon B. Johnson (35 th ) 1963-1969 Democrat Domestic Policy: The Great Society – War on Poverty, Civil Rights Act of 1964 Foreign Policy: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution expanded Vietnam War Division over war – he decides not to seek reelection in 1968
Richard M. Nixon (36 th ) 1969-1974 Republican Domestic Policy: “New Federalism” – worked to decrease Great Society programs and social welfare Foreign Policy: “Vietnamization” policy, increased bombings in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, détente in Cold War (visited China and USSR) WATERGATE: Only President to resign from office
Gerald R. Ford (37 th ) 1974-1977 Republican Was House Minority Leader when he was appointed Vice President after Spiro Agnew’s resignation. Became President after Nixon’s. Only President to serve who was never on a ballot. Domestic Policy: pardoned Nixon Foreign Policy: Helsinki Accords
Jimmy Carter (38 th ) 1977-1981 Democrat Domestic Policy: dealt with problems of stagflation and oil shortages, asked people to voluntarily cut back on energy usage. Foreign Policy: focus on human rights, Panama Canal Treaty, Camp David Accords was biggest success, Iranian Hostage Crisis was biggest failure
Ronald Reagan (39 th ) 1981-1989 Republican Domestic Policy: conservative on social issues; supply-side economic policy (Reagonomics) Foreign Policy: planned a nuclear defense strategy- strategic defense initiative (SDI) nicknamed “star wars”, signed arms control agreements with USSR
George H.W. Bush (40 th ) 1989-1993 Republican Domestic Policy: raised taxes to deal with inherited budget deficit and national debt Foreign Policy: Cold War ended; led U.S. into Persian Gulf War against Iraq in 1991.
William Clinton (41 st ) 1993-2000 Democrat Domestic Policy: focus on health care reform and social security reform, and reducing the national debt, NAFTA Foreign Policy: sent troops to Serbia, Bosnia, Haiti to secure human rights and peace Impeached by the House of Representatives on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice – acquitted by the Senate.
George W. Bush (42 nd ) 2001-2009 Republican Won presidency after election dispute and Supreme Court decision in Bush v Gore. Domestic Policy: tax cuts, NCLB, social security reform Foreign Policy: war on terror, invasions of Afghanistan (al Qauda extremists) and Iraq (Sadam Hussein and WMDs)
Barack H. Obama (43 rd ) 2009- Democrat First African-American President Domestic Policy – stimulus package for economic recovery Foreign Policy – scaled back troops in Iraq, increase troop levels in Afghanistan