Presentation on theme: "Set up the federal court system; determined the number of judges on the Supreme Court; established federal circuit (3) and district courts (13); allowed."— Presentation transcript:
1Set up the federal court system; determined the number of judges on the Supreme Court; established federal circuit (3) and district courts (13); allowed state court decisions involving the federal Constitution to be “appealed” to a federal court.
2The Departments of: State – Thomas Jefferson; War – Henry Knox; Treasury – Alexander Hamilton; Attorney General – Edmund Randolph
3Distrusted centralized power; trusted the common people Favored centralized power; distrusted the common people (unwashed masses)
4believed it was unconstitutional believed it would help to organize and stabilize the nation’s finances; believed it would tie wealthy investors and business people to the nation’s success
5RepublicanFederalisthe saw political parties as a danger to national unity and national safetyCABINET PROTECTIVE TARIFFEXCISE TAX REPUBLICANS
7RESEARCH TOPICS - Ch. 6 Sections 1 & 2 Washington’s Cabinet appointments (who)Federal Judiciary built and completedJudicial ReviewHamilton’s financial system (National Bank)Development of American Party systemHamilton v. Jefferson VIEWS CHARTWhiskey RebellionNeutrality ProclamationWashington’s Farewell AddressJohn Adams PresidencyThomas Pickney TreatySectionalism“XYZ” AffairAlien and Sedition ActsVirginia and Kentucky ResolutionsNullification and the States Rights Argument
9The New Government George Washington –CREATES the MODEL Sets early “Precedents – Traditions”Oct. 3, 1789 Thanksgiving ProclamationThursday Nov. 26National Day of Prayer and ThanksgivingFormal Ceremonies of President (WHY?)Judiciary Act of 1789Section 25 /Fed. Appeal of State decisionFederal law remains “LAW of the LAND”Cabinet (Advise the Pres.)Thomas Jefferson - Sec. of StateAlexander Hamilton - Sec. of TreasuryEconomic Issues (Hamilton)National Bank DebateIssue Paper $ / Tax Receipts / Government Funds
10Will the Ex. Branch enforce the law? Huge War Debt(federal gov’t will take over the states war debts – South NOT pleased)New Capital Compromise (D.C. – South)Pierre L’Enfant / Benjamin BannekerProtective Tariff of 1789Tax on Imports / Protects US JobsWhiskey Tax of 1791 (NW frontier)Whiskey Rebellion 1794 (1st test)Will the Ex. Branch enforce the law?Washington “enforces” the law (1st Test of the Constitution)
12UNIT 3 TEST Articles of Confederation Constitutional Convention New Nation (Federalist Era)Washington’s PresidencyAdam’s Presidency
13“FEDERALIST ERA”6-1 Notes *continued Hamilton / Jefferson Notes * Adam’s Presidency
14Federalist Anti-Federalist Alexander Hamilton -FederalistRich,Educated High voting stand.Strong Central Gov -some restrictions -bigger gov’tTrade, Manuf., etc..Government Direct -National Bank Gov’t give aid Internal TaxesThomas Jefferson -RepublicanCommon people low voting stand.Weak Cent. Gov’t individual rights smaller gov’tAgriculturalIndividuals Create -NO gov’t aid NO national bank NO internal taxesFederalistAnti-Federalist
15Amendments to the Constitution Loose Interpretation of Constitution (Liberal)Bankers, merchants, professional people, wealthy farmersNew England & North Eastern StatesOppose French Revolutionshould support England (War)Strict Interpretation of Constitution (Conservative)Artisans, craftsman, shopkeepers, small farmers, NW frontier settlersSouth, New Frontier Territories (NW)Support French RevolutionShould support France (War)Amendmentsto the Constitution
16French Revolution (divided opinions) Federalist (oppose) Republican (support)Neutrality position (War – Fr./Eng.)Both England/France “Bullying us”Edmond Genet mission (France)John Jay’s Treaty – England (Americans Object - angry) A. Hamilton - treasonThomas Pinckney Treaty 1795Spain opens Miss. River, lands: east of Mississippi and Northern Florida (Alabama, Miss, Tenn. Ky)
17Government takes new course Washingtons’s Farewell Address NO - Permanent Foreign Alliances - Political PartiesJohn Adams (2nd Pres) FederalistSectionalism Grows (of the country)New EnglandNorth EastNorthwest FrontierSouth
18NATIONALISM Feelings & Sectionalism Growing North East (NE, NY, NJ, Penn) North West Frontier South (New Territory)Original 13 Colonies New England Middle Southern
19Government takes new course XYZ Affair (France)“any amount of money for war, but not one penny for tribute”Federalist Policies QUESTIONEDAlien & Sedition Acts Anti-RepublicanHonest OpinionFree SpeechFreedom of Press
20Alien & Sedition ActsUnder the threat of war with France, Congress in 1798 passed four laws in an effort to strengthen the Federal government. Known collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts.The legislation sponsored by the Federalists was also intended to “quell any political opposition from the Republicans”, led by Thomas Jefferson.
21Alien & Sedition ActsThe first of the laws was the Naturalization Act, passed by Congress on June 18. This act required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship.Congress then passed the Alien Act on June 25, authorizing the President to deport aliens "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" during peacetime.The third law, the Alien Enemies Act, was enacted by Congress on July 6. This act allowed the wartime arrest, imprisonment and deportation of any alien subject to an enemy power.
22Alien & Sedition ActsThe last of the laws, the Sedition Act, passed on July 14 declared that any treasonable activity, including the publication of "any false, scandalous and malicious writing," was a high misdemeanor, punishable by fine and imprisonment.By virtue of this legislation 25 men, most of them editors of Republican newspapers, were arrested and their newspapers forced to shut down.
23One of the men arrested was Benjamin Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache, editor of the Philadelphia Democrat-Republican Aurora. Charged with libeling President Adams, Bache's arrest erupted in a public outcry against all of the Alien and Sedition Acts.Many Americans questioned the constitutionality of these laws. Indeed, public opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts was so great that they were in part responsible for the election of Thomas Jefferson, a Republican, to the presidency in 1800.Once in office, Jefferson pardoned all those convicted under the Sedition Act, while Congress restored all fines paid with interest.
24Government takes new course Alien & Sedition Acts (Anti-Republican)Virginia & Kentucky ResolutionsThomas Jefferson / James MadisonNULLIFICATION THEORYSTATES can declares laws UNCONSTITUTIONAL (IGNORE Federal Law)hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid, are unconstitutional; and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each, for co-operating with this state, in maintaining the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, referred to the States respectively, or to the people.
25John Marshall (Federalist) Chief Justice of Supreme CourtEXPANDS the power of Federal Gov’tJefferson (R)- Adams (F) Election (1800) Power is transferred w/o Fight (2nd Test)
26UNIT 3 TEST Articles of Confederation Constitutional Convention New Nation (Federalist Era)Washington’s PresidencyAdam’s Presidency
27UNIT 3 TEST Articles of Confederation Northwest Territories State Constitutions createdPolitical ProblemsEconomic ProblemsForeign ProblemsNorthwest TerritoriesWho decides? National or States1785 Land OrdinanceWhat are provisions1878 Northwest OrdinanceBecomes model for new territories / statesArticles of Confederation (weaknesses)Legislative Branch (13 Representatives)Limited legislative powersNO Executive (enforce laws)NO Judicial (interpret laws)NO settle disputes between statesCould NOTTax / Recruit Army /Regulate Trade or CommerceCould print money, but so could 13 statesDebtors v. Creditors Problems (taxes)Taxes to pay debts (lose farms)Print money (Cheap Money-Inflation)Daniel Shay’s Rebellion
28UNIT 3 TEST Constitutional Convention Philadelphia (Constitutional) ConventionMay (Who – What – How – Why )Republic - defineNational View v. State View Chart pg. 142(Federalist) (Anti-Federalist)Virginia Plan (big) James MadisonBicameral, Checks & BalancesNew Jersey PlanUnicameral, “law of the land”Great Compromise (Roger Sherman)House of Rep. (population) BIGSenate (2 per state) SMALLJames Madison’s Role in the ConventionGeorge Washington’s Role in conventionFederalism (share power between national and state)Reserved Powers (states)Delegated Powers (national)Three Fifths CompromiseSlave Trade Compromise (1808)Electoral College - defineAmending the Constitution (how)2/3 Congress or 3/4 StatesRatifying the ConstitutionState Constitutional ConventionsFederalists (who – what did they want)Anti-Federalist (who – what did they want)The Federalist Papers (Alexander Hamilton and others)- what impact did they play in ratification?The Bill of Rights added (1791) WHY?THE CONSTITUTIONSeparation of Powers (between the 3 branches of national government)Checks & Balance SystemJudicial Review 1+1+1=3Federal Law is the Law of the LandJudiciary Act of 1789 (section 25)
29UNIT 3 TEST Washington’s Presidency John Adams Presidency Washington’s Cabinet appointments (who)-Sec. of * War * Attorney General * State * TreasuryFederal Judiciary built and completed (acts)-Judiciary Act of 1789Hamilton’s Financial System (What did he do?)1) National Bank2) War Debts3) Protective Tariff4) Excise TaxDevelopment of American Party systemHamilton v. Jefferson VIEWS CHART(You MUST know each of the views)Whiskey Excise Tax (NW Frontier Farmers)Whiskey Rebellion- 1st Test of the Constitution (why)Neutrality Proclamation- What Foreign Policy Issues?Washington’s Farewell AddressNO - permanent foreign alliances- political partiesJohn Adams PresidencyThomas Pickney TreatyLower Mississippi Territories become USSectionalism Grows (what and how)“XYZ” Affair (Who, What, Impact)Alien and Sedition Acts (? Constitutional ?)Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions- Thomas Jefferson & James MadisonNullification Theory and States Rights ArguementJohn Marshall (Supreme Court)Jefferson Election (1800)2nd Test of the Constitution