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1. Set up the federal court system; determined the number of judges on the Supreme Court; established federal circuit (3) and district courts (13); allowed.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Set up the federal court system; determined the number of judges on the Supreme Court; established federal circuit (3) and district courts (13); allowed."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Set up the federal court system; determined the number of judges on the Supreme Court; established federal circuit (3) and district courts (13); allowed state court decisions involving the federal Constitution to be “appealed” to a federal court.

2 2. The Departments of: State – Thomas Jefferson; War – Henry Knox; Treasury – Alexander Hamilton; Attorney General – Edmund Randolph

3 3. Distrusted centralized power; trusted the common people 4. Favored centralized power; distrusted the common people (unwashed masses)

4 5. believed it was unconstitutional 6. believed it would help to organize and stabilize the nation’s finances; believed it would tie wealthy investors and business people to the nation’s success

5 7. Republican 8. Federalist 9. he saw political parties as a danger to national unity and national safety CABINETPROTECTIVE TARIFF EXCISE TAXREPUBLICANS

6 “FEDERALIST ERA” “FEDERALIST ERA” “A New Nation” -Washington -Adams

7 RESEARCH TOPICS - Ch. 6 Sections 1 & 2 l Washington’s Cabinet appointments (who) l Federal Judiciary built and completed l Judicial Review l Hamilton’s financial system (National Bank) l Development of American Party system –Hamilton v. Jefferson VIEWS CHART l Whiskey Rebellion l Neutrality Proclamation l Washington’s Farewell Address l John Adams Presidency l Thomas Pickney Treaty l Sectionalism l “XYZ” Affair l Alien and Sedition Acts l Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions l Nullification and the States Rights Argument


9 The New Government l George Washington –CREATES the MODEL l Sets early “Precedents – Traditions” –Oct. 3, 1789 Thanksgiving Proclamation –Thursday Nov. 26 National Day of Prayer and Thanksgiving –Formal Ceremonies of President (WHY?) Judiciary Act of 1789 –Section 25 /Fed. Appeal of State decision –Federal law remains “LAW of the LAND” l Cabinet (Advise the Pres.) l Thomas Jefferson - Sec. of State l Alexander Hamilton - Sec. of Treasury l Economic Issues (Hamilton) –National Bank Debate –Issue Paper $ / Tax Receipts / Government Funds

10 Huge War Debt –(federal gov’t will take over the states war debts – South NOT pleased) New Capital Compromise (D.C. – South) –Pierre L’Enfant / Benjamin Banneker l Protective Tariff of 1789 –Tax on Imports / Protects US Jobs Whiskey Tax of 1791 (NW frontier) Whiskey Rebellion 1794 (1st test) Will the Ex. Branch enforce the law? l Washington “enforces” the law (1 st Test of the Constitution)

11 How do the 1st Political Parties Develop?

12 UNIT 3 TEST l Articles of Confederation l Constitutional Convention l New Nation (Federalist Era) –Washington’s Presidency –Adam’s Presidency

13 “FEDERALIST ERA” “FEDERALIST ERA” 6-1 Notes *continued -Hamilton / Jefferson 6-2 Notes * Adam’s Presidency

14 l Alexander Hamilton -Federalist l Rich,Educated -High voting stand. l Strong Central Gov -some restrictions -bigger gov’t l Trade, Manuf., etc.. l Government Direct -National Bank -Gov’t give aid -Internal Taxes l Thomas Jefferson -Republican l Common people -low voting stand. l Weak Cent. Gov’t -individual rights -smaller gov’t l Agricultural l Individuals Create -NO gov’t aid -NO national bank -NO internal taxes

15 Loose Interpretation of Constitution ( Liberal ) l Bankers, merchants, professional people, wealthy farmers l New England & North Eastern States l Oppose French Revolution l should support England (War) Strict Interpretation of Constitution ( Conservative ) l Artisans, craftsman, shopkeepers, small farmers, NW frontier settlers l South, New Frontier Territories (NW) l Support French Revolution l Should support France (War)

16 French Revolution (divided opinions) l Federalist (oppose) Republican (support) Neutrality position (War – Fr./Eng.) –Both England/France “Bullying us” Edmond Genet mission (France) John Jay’s Treaty – England (Americans Object - angry) A. Hamilton - treason Thomas Pinckney Treaty 1795 –Spain opens Miss. River, lands: east of Mississippi and Northern Florida (Alabama, Miss, Tenn. Ky)

17 Government takes new course Washingtons’s Farewell Address NO - Permanent Foreign Alliances - Political Parties John Adams (2nd Pres) Federalist Sectionalism Grows (of the country) –New England –North East –Northwest Frontier –South

18 Original 13 Colonies -New England -Middle -Southern NATIONALISM Feelings & Sectionalism Growing -North East (NE, NY, NJ, Penn) - North West Frontier - South (New Territory)

19 Government takes new course XYZ Affair (France) –“any amount of money for war, but not one penny for tribute” l Federalist Policies QUESTIONED l Alien & Sedition Acts Anti-Republican –Honest Opinion –Free Speech –Freedom of Press

20 Alien & Sedition Acts l Under the threat of war with France, Congress in 1798 passed four laws in an effort to strengthen the Federal government. Known collectively as the Alien and Sedition Acts. l The legislation sponsored by the Federalists was also intended to “quell any political opposition from the Republicans”, led by Thomas Jefferson.

21 l The first of the laws was the Naturalization Act, passed by Congress on June 18. This act required that aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became eligible for U.S. citizenship. l Congress then passed the Alien Act on June 25, authorizing the President to deport aliens "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States" during peacetime. l The third law, the Alien Enemies Act, was enacted by Congress on July 6. This act allowed the wartime arrest, imprisonment and deportation of any alien subject to an enemy power. Alien & Sedition Acts

22 l The last of the laws, the Sedition Act, passed on July 14 declared that any treasonable activity, including the publication of "any false, scandalous and malicious writing," was a high misdemeanor, punishable by fine and imprisonment. l By virtue of this legislation 25 men, most of them editors of Republican newspapers, were arrested and their newspapers forced to shut down. Alien & Sedition Acts

23 l One of the men arrested was Benjamin Franklin's grandson, Benjamin Franklin Bache, editor of the Philadelphia Democrat-Republican Aurora. Charged with libeling President Adams, Bache's arrest erupted in a public outcry against all of the Alien and Sedition Acts. l Many Americans questioned the constitutionality of these laws. Indeed, public opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts was so great that they were in part responsible for the election of Thomas Jefferson, a Republican, to the presidency in l Once in office, Jefferson pardoned all those convicted under the Sedition Act, while Congress restored all fines paid with interest.

24 Government takes new course l Alien & Sedition Acts (Anti-Republican) l Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions –Thomas Jefferson / James Madison NULLIFICATION THEORY –STATES can declares laws UNCONSTITUTIONAL (IGNORE Federal Law) –hereby declare, that the acts aforesaid, are unconstitutional; and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each, for co-operating with this state, in maintaining the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, referred to the States respectively, or to the people.

25 l John Marshall (Federalist) –Chief Justice of Supreme Court –EXPANDS the power of Federal Gov’t 2 nd Test l Jefferson (R)- Adams (F) Election (1800) -Power is transferred w/o Fight (2 nd Test)

26 UNIT 3 TEST l Articles of Confederation l Constitutional Convention l New Nation (Federalist Era) –Washington’s Presidency –Adam’s Presidency

27 UNIT 3 TEST l Articles of Confederation –State Constitutions created –Political Problems –Economic Problems –Foreign Problems l Northwest Territories –Who decides? National or States –1785 Land Ordinance What are provisions –1878 Northwest Ordinance What are provisions Becomes model for new territories / states l Articles of Confederation (weaknesses) –Legislative Branch (13 Representatives) Limited legislative powers –NO Executive (enforce laws) –NO Judicial (interpret laws) –NO settle disputes between states –Could NOT –Tax / Recruit Army /Regulate Trade or Commerce –Could print money, but so could 13 states l Debtors v. Creditors Problems (taxes) –Taxes to pay debts (lose farms) –Print money (Cheap Money- Inflation) l Daniel Shay’s Rebellion

28 UNIT 3 TEST l Constitutional Convention –Philadelphia (Constitutional) Convention –May 1787 (Who – What – How – Why ) –Republic - define l National View v. State View Chart pg. 142 –(Federalist)(Anti-Federalist) l Virginia Plan (big) James Madison l Bicameral, Checks & Balances l New Jersey Plan l Unicameral, “law of the land” l Great Compromise (Roger Sherman) –House of Rep. (population) BIG –Senate (2 per state) SMALL l James Madison’s Role in the Convention l George Washington’s Role in convention l Federalism (share power between national and state) l Reserved Powers (states) l Delegated Powers (national) l Three Fifths Compromise l Slave Trade Compromise (1808) l Electoral College - define l Amending the Constitution (how) –2/3 Congress or 3/4 States l Ratifying the Constitution –State Constitutional Conventions –Federalists (who – what did they want) –Anti-Federalist (who – what did they want) l The Federalist Papers (Alexander Hamilton and others) –- what impact did they play in ratification? l The Bill of Rights added (1791) WHY? l THE CONSTITUTION –Separation of Powers (between the 3 branches of national government) Checks & Balance System l Judicial Review 1+1+1=3 Federal Law is the Law of the Land Judiciary Act of 1789 (section 25)

29 UNIT 3 TEST l Washington’s Presidency –Washington’s Cabinet appointments (who) –-Sec. of * War * Attorney General * State * Treasury –Federal Judiciary built and completed (acts) l -Judiciary Act of 1789 –Hamilton’s Financial System (What did he do?) –1) National Bank –2) War Debts –3) Protective Tariff –4) Excise Tax –Development of American Party system –Hamilton v. Jefferson VIEWS CHART l (You MUST know each of the views) l Whiskey Excise Tax (NW Frontier Farmers) l Whiskey Rebellion l - 1st Test of the Constitution (why) l Neutrality Proclamation l - What Foreign Policy Issues? l Washington’s Farewell Address l NO - permanent foreign alliances l - political parties l John Adams Presidency –Thomas Pickney Treaty –Lower Mississippi Territories become US l Sectionalism Grows (what and how) l “XYZ” Affair (Who, What, Impact) l Alien and Sedition Acts (? Constitutional ?) l Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions l - Thomas Jefferson & James Madison l Nullification Theory and States Rights Arguement l John Marshall (Supreme Court) l Jefferson Election (1800) –2 nd Test of the Constitution

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