Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 13 Broken Bonds 1855 – 1861 “I will say, then, that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 13 Broken Bonds 1855 – 1861 “I will say, then, that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races (applause); that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people.... And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race.” Abraham Lincoln September 1858, Charleston, Illinois
Chronology 1832 Nullification Crisis 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo; Zachary Taylor; "free-soilers" 1850 Compromise of 1850; American "know nothing" movement; Millard Fillmore president 1851 Northern reaction to the Fugitive Slave Law; Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin 1852 Franklin Pierce elected president 1854 Ostend Manifesto; Kansas-Nebraska Act; treaty renegotiations; Republican Party begins 1855 William Walker’s "filibuster" in Nicaragua 1856 Looting of Lawrence, Kansas; John Brown’s Pottawatomie massacre; Buchanan president 1857 Dred Scott decision; Buchanan accepts proslavery Lecompton constitution; Panic 1858 Congress rejects Lecompton constitution; Lincoln-Douglas 1859 John Brown’s raid at Harper’s Ferry candidates for president; Lincoln’s election; S. secession additional "deep South" states secede; Confederate States formed, Lincoln takes
Chapter Review Define popular sovereignty and explain how the political parties of the mid-nineteenth century used it to shape their particular political agendas. Explain how events in Kansas contributed to problems for the Democratic Party. Describe the political issues surrounding the Dred Scott case and the significance of the subsequent Supreme Court decision. Briefly explain the various Southern viewpoints on the issue of slavery in the 1850s. Explain the political positions of Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln on the eve of their 1858 debate series. Explain the significance of the 1860 presidential election. Why did the deep South secede from the U.S.?
Concepts Harper’s Ferry, John Brown, Robert E. Lee William Walker, filibuster Yeoman Border ruffians Charles Sumner Bleeding Kansas James Buchanan Roger B. Taney, Dred Scott case Abraham Lincoln Lincoln-Douglas debates Fort Sumter
I. North and South Collide White South uses variety of arguments to justify slavery, while critics of slavery point to economic “backwardness” Popular sovereignty and Kansas-Nebraska Act bring violence to nation Republican party vows to halt spread of slavery Dred Scott case clarifies differences within country
The New York City torchlight meeting of the “Know-Nothings” or the American Party in Nov. 1855
Ripon, Wisconsin schoolhouse where Republicans first met
John C. Fremont, first Republican candidate for president, US Senator from California
Dred Scott Dred Scott and his wife Harriet are portrayed here with their children as an average middle- class family, an image that fueled Northern opposition to the Supreme Court’s 1857 decision that denied both Scott’s freedom and his citizenship. Courtesy of Library of Congress
Dred and Harriet Scott. He argued his residency in Wisconsin made both of them free.
Chief Justice Roger Taney, primary author of the Dred Scott Decision of 1857.
Democrat James Buchanan, elected president in 1856.
II. American Society in Crisis Panic of 1857 spurs religious revival Kansas remains cauldron of unrest 1858 senatorial elections bring Abraham Lincoln to attention of Republican leaders John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry polarizes nation
John Brown’s “fort” at Harper’s Ferry
The arraignment of John Brown at Charles Town, West Virginia
John Brown John Brown, wounded during his raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, lies on a cot during his trial for murder and treason in Charlestown, Virginia, in 1859.The Granger Collection, New York
IV. The First Secession Lincoln’s inaugural address clarifies his position but fails to satisfy South Attempts to relieve Fort Sumter draw fire and plunge country into war
Confederate Soldiers at Pensacola against Fort Pickens
The Road to Disunion North-South Differences John Brown’s Raid The Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln, Stephen Douglas and John C. Breckinridge, Constitutional Party John Bell Secession Begins Presidential Inaction Peace Proposals John C. Crittenden, Jan and former pres. John Tyler in Feb – Crittenden wanted to extend Missouri Compromise line through CA but South disinterested Lincoln’s Views on Secession