Dem.-Republican Revolution (1801-1825) Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809) James Madison (1809-1817) James Monroe (1817-1825)
Jefferson’s Plan to Reform Alien and Sedition Acts allowed to expire. Cut federal spending to balance budget and pay off the debt. (Cuts to army & navy) –Pays off approximately half of the US debt. Reward loyal supporters with gov’t. jobs. –“We are all Republicans; We are all Federalists” –Uses patronage to replace 180 Federalists. Repeals Whiskey Tax. Attacks Federalist dominated court. –Repeals Judiciary Act of 1801. –Marbury v. Madison, 1803. –Impeaches Timothy Pickering & Samuel Chase, but Chase is not removed from office.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) William Marbury was a midnight judge whose commission was signed, but not delivered. President Jefferson ordered Sec. of State Madison not to deliver the commission. Marbury sues for his commission. He requests that the Supreme Court issue a writ of mandamus for the gov’t to deliver his commission. Chief Justice John Marshall (Federalist) believes that Marbury deserves his commission and would like to find in his favor yet, he is worried that if the gov’t refuses the court’s order he would expose the court as weak.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) Instead of exposing the weakness of the court Marshall ingeniously strengthens it. He ruled the power “writ of mandamus” granted the court by the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, thereby establishing Judicial Review. Though he blasted Madison for not delivering the commission, he ruled that the court did not have the constitutional power to order them to deliver it and thus struck down the law Congress had passed to give the court that power. Marshall stated his position, strengthened the court, and did not expose the weakness of the court. Everyone won except Marbury.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 The Mississippi River was explored for France by Jacques Marquette, S.J. and Louis Joliet (1673). In 1681, the Mississippi and its watershed was loosely claimed for France by Robert de la Salle. In 1763, France turned this territory over to Spain as payment for its aid during the French and Indian War. In 1800, after France had conquered Spain and Napoleon placed his brother Joseph in control, Spain returned the territory to France in the Treaty of San Ildefonso. France promised Spain the Grand Duchy of Tuscany but never delivered.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Jefferson’s dream was to create an unbroken coastline from Maine to the Mississippi. He also believed that the future of the U.S. lay across the Mississippi. The return of a strong France on our western frontier was a threat to that goal. In 1795, Pinckney’s Treaty granted the U.S. the right of deposit in New Orleans. Yet, our claim over and the future growth of lands west of the Appalachian Mts. was still at the mercy of foreign powers. Jefferson sent Robert Livingston with $2 million to purchase west Florida in order to give us a foothold at the mouth of the Mississippi.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Timing is good for the U.S. Napoleon had just decided to scrap the idea of recreating a “new world” empire for France. A persistent slave revolt on the island of Santo Domingo, led by Toussaint L’Overture, left France without a Caribbean base of operation. Napoleon decided to sell the Louisiana Territory to the Americans for $15 million in order to help finance his conquest of Europe. When the Federalists raise the issue of the constitutionality of the purchase, Jefferson states that, since the government is granted the power to govern new territories, it is implied that they have the right to purchase them also.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Lewis & Clark Expedition Prior to the purchase, Jefferson had already secured funds for a fact finding mission in the Louisiana territory. Jefferson’s personal secretary, Meriweather Lewis heads the three year expedition along with frontier scout/Indian fighter William Clark. The goals of the expedition were to, scout an all water route to the Pacific, record the flora and fauna, discover available resources and to make note of things of military importance. While wintering at a Mandan Indian camp in North Dakota, they take on a Shoshone Indian woman as a guide. Sacajawea crosses the Rockies and Sierra Nevada with a baby strapped to her back.
Foreign Policy Crisis 25 Years of War in Europe Napoleonic Wars - In 1803, after a brief respite, war breaks out once again in Europe. Continental System - After the effectiveness of his fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), Napoleon tried to use his control of Europe to destroy England’s economy (ability to finance war) by denying them access to European markets. Paper Blockades – British economic retaliation to the Continental System brings a flurry of paper blockades that put American trade in a no win situation and seriously disrespects the sovereignty of the U.S. Ignited by the Chesapeake Incident, Jefferson decided to use American trade as a weapon in order to win respect for U.S. rights on the high seas. (Embargo Act, 1807)
Foreign Policy Crisis 25 Years of War in Europe Broken Voyages (1805) – Britain cracked down on Americans transporting French Caribbean goods to the U.S. in order to change the ship’s manifest prior to sailing for France in an attempt to avoid the Rule of ‘56. Berlin Decree (1806) – Napoleon declares a blockade of English ships from all French held European ports. Orders-in-Council (1807) – England declares that any neutral, trading with a European port closed to English ships, must stop to purchase a license, otherwise they will be seized. Milan Decree (1807) – Napoleon declares that any neutral allowing England to disrespect their sovereignty by purchasing a license will be seized.
Foreign Policy Crisis 25 Years of War in Europe Chesapeake Incident (1807) – The U.S.S. Chesapeake, an American warship in American waters, is fired upon by the H.M.S. Leopard. Three sailors are killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors are impressed. Embargo Act (1807-09) – Forbade all American trade from leaving American waters, (no exports). Funding for the Coast Guard is increased to enforce the embargo. Non-Intercourse Act (1809) – With the Embargo an obvious failure, this act is passed in the last days of Jefferson’s presidency restoring all foreign trade except to England & France. Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810) – Passed during the Madison administration, this act offered exclusive U.S. trade to the power which agreed to respect U.S. independent rights. France responds agreeing to respect U.S. rights. Without a fleet they had nothing to lose.
The War of 1812 (1812-1815) United States v. England A strange, yet important, war: –No land changed hands. –No major incident started the war. –The declaration of war passes the English agreement to respect U.S. rights on the high seas. –The last and most decisive battle is fought after the peace treaty had already been signed. (New Orleans) –The U.S. gains greater international respect for having physically defended their sovereign rights. –U.S. control over the Northwest Territory is confirmed & Native American resistance in the territory is broken. –Victory in the Battle of New Orleans gives rise to American nationalism & collapses the Federalist party.
The War of 1812 The war was declared based of a group of issues that were important to various regions of the country. –Ships seizures. –Impressment. –Indian uprisings in the Northwest Territory. –Land hunger to gain Canada & Florida. –National honor. Ironically, New England (Federalists) did not support the war. The profits from successful smuggling were worth the financial lose of the seized ships.
The War of 1812 Battle of Tippecanoe (11/1811) –William Henry Harrison, Governor of Indiana –Tecumseh, Chief of the Shawnee Invasion of Canada fails (6/1812) –Fort Detroit surrenders –Niagara Army is turned back without support of New York militia. Naval victories save U.S. morale –U.S.S. Constitution v. H.M.S. Guerriere (8/1812) –U.S.S. United States v. H.M.S. Macedonian (10/1812) –U.S.S. Constitution v. H.M.S. Java (12/1812)
The War of 1812 Toronto (York) invaded & burned (4/1813) Battle of Lake Erie (9/1813) –Oliver Hazard Perry “We have met the enemy, and they are ours.” U.S. regains Northwest by cutting off British navy. –Battle of Moravian Town (10/1813) U.S. defeats British retreating from Northwest Tecumseh is killed, Indian support for Brits ended. Battle of Horseshoe Bend (3/1814) –Andrew Jackson breaks Mississippi Valley Indian resistance gaining control of southern Georgia and Alabama.
The War of 1812 British invasion from Canada fails (9/1814) –After the fall of Napoleon the English have enough ships to complete American blockade. –The Americans defeat the British in Plattsburg, New York and on Lake Champlain. Thomas McDonough – Pinion Maneuver British burn Washington, D.C. –Victorious at Bladensburg, Md., the British march into the capital and put it to the torch in retaliation for Toronto (York). –Legend has it that Dolly Madison saved many national treasures before fleeing. The Madison’s dinner was still warm & on the table when the British arrived. The President’s Mansion is repaired and given a coat of whitewash paint = “White House”.
The War of 1812 British burn Washington, D.C. –Yet, in order to hold Washington, D.C. the British needed the support of its’ fleet. –Defending the Potomac River were two American forts, Ft. Covington and Ft. McHenry. –The British launch 2000 incendiary rockets during the night of 9/13-9/14 in order to level the forts. Ft. McHenry survived the assault and the British army was forced to withdraw for Washington, D.C. Star-Spangled Banner = National Anthem 3/3/1931.
The War of 1812 Battle of New Orleans (12/1814-1/1815) –Americans heavily outnumbered 8000-5000. In order to supplement his numbers General Andrew Jackson promised a pardon for the notorious pirate Jean Lafitte. –Due to the terrain the British had to attack a heavily fortified American position. Unfortunately for the British, their front line troops were not equipped with siege ladders and they could scale the American defenses. –American sharp-shooters delivered many British casualties. The resulting loses were 2000+ British to less than 100 American. –Though the victory was earn after the peace was signed, it inspired great American nationalism and eventually launched Andrew Jackson to the Presidency in 1828.
Collapse of the Federalists Hartford Convention (12/1814) –Just as the news of the victory in New Orleans & the peace treaty ending the War of 1812 are hitting Wash., D.C. the Federalists had made a number of demands on the Dem.-Rep. lead gov’t., threatening secession. No embargoes more than 60 days. 2/3 vote to: declare war, embargo, admit states No naturalized citizens should hold gov’t. office. Abolish 3/5ths Compromise. No President can serve more than one term. –Appearing somewhat treasonous during a time of heightened nationalism, the Federalist party collapses as a national party.
Era of Good Feelings James Monroe (1817-1825) Dem.-Republicans pass Federalist legislation. –American System- Proposed by Henry Clay & supported by John Calhoun, it was a program that would use protective tariffs and federal funds for building highways and canals. “Let us bind the Republic together…Let us conquer space.” –2 nd National Bank- Suffering financial hardships while fighting the War of 1812 after they allowed the 1 st National Bank to lapse, Republicans support new bank. –Tariff of 1816- In an attempt to put the good of the national ahead of the good of any one region and to protect the nations markets from cheap stockpiled British goods (Continental System) a 25% tariff was placed on imported goods.
Era of Good Feelings James Monroe (1817-1825) The United States gets greater international respect. –Rush-Bagot Agreement, (1817)- Peace between the U.S. & Canada. Demilitarizes the Great Lakes. Each nation can keep only one warship on Lake Champlain & Ontario and only two on the other lakes. –Convention of 1818- Continues new trade relationship established with Britain in 1815 and fixes the northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at 49 degrees north latitude. –Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)- Establishes the western “Step boundary” of the Louisiana Purchase (Rocky Mts.) with Spain. The U.S. trades any possible claims on Texas for the Spanish territory of Florida.
Era of Good Feelings James Monroe (1817-1825) These precedent setting cases all strengthen the Federal Gov’t. They are all decided in John Marshall’s Supreme Court & are argued for the gov’t. by Daniel Webster –McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Support the legitimacy of the elastic clause. No State may tax a Federal institution. –Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) Guarantees the “Sanctity of Contracts” Federal courts can overturn a State court decision. –Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) A State may not grant a monopoly which might hinder interstate trade. 1 st time the Federal Gov’t. exercises power to regulate trade.
Missouri Compromise, 1821 Population in the United States grew from 7 to 13 million from 1810- 1830. Six new states entered the Union during this period (Ms., Ala., Ind., Ill.,Me.,Mo.). The west was quickly becoming a new force in politics that threatened the balance of power between the north and south. Which ever direction the west goes, so may the politics and the culture of the nation. When Missouri submited a constitution to Congress in an attempt to become a state, Rep. James Tallmadge (NY) proposed an amendment that would manumit slaves in that territory and outlaw slavery in the future. With the number of slave v. free states even at 11 & 11, the amendment passes the House twice, but is blocked in the Senate. Henry Clay proposed a compromise to this hotly contested issue: The dividing line slave v. free in the Louisiana Territory will be the latitude of 36 degrees 30 minutes. Only Missouri north of that line could have slavery. In order to maintain the balance, the free state of Maine entered the Union to match Missouri.
Monroe Doctrine, 1823 A statement of the United States’ foreign policy position in regard to the western hemisphere. It is announced through President Monroe’s “State of the Union” address. –“The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” –In 1823, this position holds water only because the British also support this position and they have the fleet to back it up. They support the newly established independent Central and South American states because they need markets for their goods and are happy about the end of Spain’s mercantilistic control of the region.