2StandardsSSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction.a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction.b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau.c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments.d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction.e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction.f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction
3The Reconstruction Era What lasting consequences arose from the struggles over Reconstruction?
4Rival Plans for Reconstruction Section 1 How did the Radical Republicans’ plans for Reconstruction differ from Lincoln’s and Johnson’s?Vocabulary:Reconstruction black codeRadical Republican impeachCivil Rights Act of 1866 Wade-Davis BillFreedmen’s Bureau Andrew JohnsonFourteenth AmendmentFifteenth Amendment
5Rival Plans for Reconstruction The Issues of ReconstructionMain Idea: During the era of Reconstruction (1865–1877), the federal government struggled with how to return the eleven southern states to the Union, rebuild the South’s ruined economy, and promote the rights of former slaves.Lincoln Sets a Moderate CourseMain Idea: Even while the war was in progress, Union politicians had debated programs for repairing the nation’s political structure and economy. For President Lincoln, one of the first major goals was to reunify the nation.Johnson’s Reconstruction PlanMain Idea: Lincoln’s death thrust his Vice President, Andrew Johnson, into the presidency. Like Lincoln, Johnson wanted to restore the political status of the southern states as quickly as possible. However, Johnson was against federal intervention to advance African American political and civil rights. This caused significant tension with Congress.Congressional ReconstructionMain Idea: As violence against African Americans in the South increased, moderate and Radical Republicans blamed the rising tide of lawlessness on Johnson’s lenient policies. For the first time ever, with the required two-thirds majority, Congress passed major legislation over a President’s veto. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 became law.
6Think About It…Why did the implementation of truly radical measures during Reconstruction fail to truly help southern Blacks while thoroughly angering and alienating southern whites?So…Was Reconstruction a success or was Reconstruction a failure??
7Presidential Reconstruction Section 1 Reconstruction was the federal government’s attempt to repair the damage to the South after the Civil WarOccurred from 1865 to 1877ControversialHad mixed results
8Results of the Civil War The entire country was impacted by the warThe NorthLost 364k Federal soldiers including 38k African AmericansThe SouthLost 260k Confederate soldiers1/5 of all white men in region
9Southerners’ Hardships Black Southerners4 million freed slaves with little or no skills or educationHomeless and joblessPlantation ownersLost slave labor that amounted to $3 billionLost seized plantation land- $100 millionPoor white southernersCould not find new jobsMoved North if possible
10Federal Government’s Dilemma What to do About the South?? Lincoln's PlanPardon any Southerner who pledged allegiance to the United StatesBut denied pardons to officials who had killed African American war prisonersPermitted states to hold a new constitutional convention AFTER 10% of voters had sworn allegiance to the USAfter state constitutions were accepted, voting rights would be reestablished
12The Radical Republicans Most northerners in Congress were Republicans and opposed to slaveryThey now wanted to punish the SouthSaw Lincoln’s plan as too forgivingCongress’ Plan was to totally reconstruct southern society and guarantee southern blacks equalityPassed own plan- The Wade- Davis ActLincoln used pocket-veto to kill bill
13The Death of a President Did not live to see the peace he helped to createConspirators and southern sympathizers plotted against the presidentDied in office on April 14, 1865
15Lincoln - Kennedy Coincidences 9) The first name of Lincoln's private secretary was John, the last name of Kennedy's private secretary was Lincoln.10) John Wilkes Booth was born in 1839 [according to some sources] Lee Harvey Oswald was born in 1939, one hundred years later.11) Both assassins were Southerners who held extremist views.12) Both assassins were murdered before they could be brought to trial.13) Booth shot Lincoln in a theater and fled to a warehouse. Oswald shot Kennedy from a warehouse and fled to a theater.14) Lincoln and KENNEDY each has 7 letters.15) ANDREW JOHNSON and LYNDON JOHNSON each has 13 letters.16) JOHN Wilkes BOOTH and LEE HARVEY OSWALD each has 15 letters.17) A Lincoln staffer Miss Kennedy told him not to go to the Theater. A Kennedy staffer Miss Lincoln, told him not to go to Dallas.1) Lincoln was elected in 1860, Kennedy in 1960, 100 years apart2) Both men were deeply involved in civil rights for African Americans.3) Both men were assassinated on a Friday, in the presence of their wives.4) Each wife had lost a child while living at the White House.5) Both men were killed by a bullet that entered the head from behind.6) Lincoln was killed in Ford's Theater. Kennedy met his death while riding in a Lincoln convertible made by the Ford Motor Company.7) Both men were succeeded by vice-presidents named Johnson who were southern Democrats and former senators.8) Andrew Johnson was born in Lyndon Johnson was born in 1908, exactly one hundred years later.
17President Andrew Johnson Not well liked by either sideOnly Southern senator to remain in Congress after SecessionCreated own plan for Reconstructing the SouthPolitical Cartoon, “Johnson Antagonizes Washington”
18Johnson’s Plan Pardon all Southerner’s who swore allegiance to US Permitted each southern state to hold a constitutional convention without Lincoln’s 10% requirementFormer Confederate states had to void secession, abolish slavery, and ratify 13th AmendmentThen elections could be held and statehood resumed
19Like Adding Fuel to the Fire Johnson’s Plan vs. Lincoln's PlanJohnson’s was more generous to the SouthCreated anger and resentment in CongressCongress decided to make own planThe Radical Republicans were born
20Congress’ Plan Put the South under military rule Order southern states to hold new elections for constitutional delegatesRequired all states to allow African- Americans the right to voteTemporarily barred former Confederates from votingRequired southern states to guarantee equal rights for all citizensRequired all states ratify the 14th Amendment
22A Showdown Between Two Branches of Government! A constitutional crisis occurred when the Congress’ plan was pitted against the President’s planTwo powerful Senators led the charge against President JohnsonCharles Sumner- MA senator and abolitionistThaddeus Stevens- PA senator and power player
23Executive versus Legislative President Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War Edwin StantonThe Radical Republicans tried to block the firing using the new Tenure of Office ActProvisions of the Act:Took power away from the PresidentThe hiring and firing of Cabinet secretaries had to approved by CongressThe title of Commander-in-Chief was also removed!
24Decision Point: Who Controls the Readmission of States?
25Thank God Almighty I’m Free At Last! Southern blacks celebrated their freedom as the politicians decided how to proceed with punishing the SouthFreedom of MovementFreedom to Own LandFreedom to WorshipFreedom to Learn
26Quick Study: Freedmen’s Bureau Schools, 1865-1870
27The Freedman’s BureauCreated in March 1865 as a relief agency for newly freed slaves or “Freedmen”Was intended to offer assistance in housing, education, and citizenshipWas not completely successfully in any of these areas (due to corruption and mismanagement)Did issue twenty million rations of food, established 50 hospitals, set up 4,330 schools and helped establish the first Black colleges.
29The 14th and 15th Amendments Congress was concerned about these abuses and decided to add civil rights to the US Constitution14th Amendment- Granted citizenship and “equal protection” to all African Americans15th Amendment- Gave the right to vote to all African American males over the age of 21Both amendments have had far reaching effects in the 19th-20th and 21st centuries
30Reconstruction in the South Section 2 What were the immediate effects of Reconstruction?Vocabulary:scalawag share-tenancycarpetbagger tenant farmingsegregation Ku Klux Klanintegration Enforcement Actssharecropping
31Sec 2: Reconstruction in the South Republican Governments Bring ChangeMain Idea: The Republican Party dominated Confederate states’ newly established governments and consisted of black men, men who previously lacked access to politics, and northerners who moved to the south to make their fortunes. The Republicans succeeded at helping to shape a public school system but failed to support women’s suffrage.Freed People Build New CommunitiesMain Idea: For the first time, many African American men and women could legalize and celebrate their marriages, create homes for their families, and make choices about where they would reside. However, their choices were restricted by black codes that limited what work they might do. Life presented new problems and opportunities.Remaking the Southern EconomyMain Idea: Many of the South’s problems resulted from the uneven distribution of land. After the war, the millions of landless southern white people were competing with millions of landless black people for work as farm laborers on the land of others.Continued…Sec 2: Reconstruction in the South
33The Life of a Freedman The South was desperate for workers Most former slaves who could leave didMost who stayed in South became sharecroppers or tenant farmersWorked another person’s landHad free or reduced rent in exchange for tending cropsReceived part of profit- if any was made
34Economic Effects on South The labor force changedCotton harvest changed from 90% slave labor to 40% white tenant farmersEmphasis now on cash cropsCotton, tobacco, and sugar cane rather than foodThe South became dependent upon imports of foodCycle of debt was establishedPoverty in all classes and racesRise of merchant class in SouthNew stores sold goods on credit
36Black CodesAfter Southern states met Johnson’s requirements they one-by-one rolled back civil rights lawsMany southern states instituted Black Codes as a way of getting around requirementsSet curfews, created vagrancy laws, set year-long contract minimums, limited black women’s right to work, restricted renting to cities…
40Johnson as Caesar: “Treason is a crime and must be punished"
41The 1st Presidential Impeachment The House of Representatives filed charges of impeachment against JohnsonThe House voted ‘yes’The Senate held a trial and Johnson was found ‘not guilty’ by one voteWas not convictedKept his officeEstablished the precedent that “high crimes and misdemeanors” were needed to remove a president
42The Republican South Not everyone in the South was a Democrat Northerners who moved South to take advantage of the situation for profit were called “carpetbaggers”Even more hated were the “ScalawagsSoutherners who joined the Republican party or who were former Whigs
43Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Burden of Reconstruction TRANSPARENCYAnalyzing Political Cartoons: The Burden of Reconstruction
46Terror GroupsWhite Southerners unhappy with their new way of life created “political clubs” to complain about politicsThese soon evolved into terrorist groupsKKK, The Knights of the White Camilla…Used tactics such as intimidation, threats, and violence against freedmen, carpetbaggers, and scalawagsEffective at stopping progression in South
48Stopping the KlanPresident Grant requested that Congress pass a series of laws outlawing hate groups and their tacticsThe Enforcement Act of 1870Used federal troops to stop the violence, but once the troops withdrew the terror started again
50The End of Reconstruction Section 3 How and why did Reconstruction end?Vocabulary:RedeemerRutherford B. HayesCompromise of 1877
51The End of Reconstruction The Nation Considers Other MattersMain Idea: Aside from the long-standing issue of regional strife, other social, political, and economic issues cried out for attention.Why Did Reconstruction End?Main Idea: Ever since the Radical Republicans failed to convict President Johnson, their power and crusading zeal had faded. By 1871, a generation of white reformers, forged by abolitionist fervor and eager to participate in the national politics of Reconstruction, had passed away. Without such leaders to temper it, northern racial prejudice reemerged.Evaluating Reconstruction’s EffectsMain Idea: Reconstruction failed to heal the bitterness between North and South or to provide lasting protection for freed people. However, it did raise African Americans’ expectations of their right to citizenship, and it placed before Americans the meaning and value of the right to vote.
54Birth of Industrial South Growth of southern citiesAtlanta, Nashville, Memphis, Dallas, Montgomery, Little RockSome areas became industrialBirmingham AL- steel productionHowever, the majority of Southerners remained dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood
55The End of Reconstruction Most Americans had become tired of Reconstruction by the mid-1870’s- Why?The country had gone into debtReconstruction programs became known for greed and corruptionSoutherners had gained back control in most Southern states (it took longer in GA!)Southern states began to block legislation in Congress againMany Northern voters’ did not support the Radical Republican’s idea of full equality for blacksAn economic recession turned public opinion away from the movement for equal rights
56The Solid South is BornWhen the Southern states all were readmitted they began to vote in a Democratic blockWhite Southern Democrats were elected who blocked new legislation
57The Election of 1876Republican Rutherford B. Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel TildenCongress was forced to settle the electionThe vote went to Hayes when he promised to end ReconstructionThe Compromise of 1877Gave the South control of own states
60Successes of Reconstruction Union was rebuilt and South was rebuiltEconomic growth was established in the SouthThe 14th and 15th Amendments granted rights to freedmenThe Freedman’s Bureau helped many newly freed slaves with a fresh startMandatory education was started in South
61Failures of Reconstruction Most blacks remained poor and uneducatedTerror groups were formedRacist attitudes continued in both the North and SouthSouthern infrastructure and economies lagged far behind the NorthMany problems remained unaddressedWomen, labor unions, and farmers fearful of the coming of the railroads
62Think About It…Again!Why did the implementation of truly radical measures during Reconstruction fail to truly help southern Blacks while thoroughly angering and alienating southern whites?So…Was Reconstruction a success or was Reconstruction a failure??