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Chapter 12.

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1 Chapter 12

2 Standards SSUSH10 The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican Reconstruction. b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves and provide advanced education (Morehouse College) and describe the role of the Freedmen’s Bureau. c. Describe the significance of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. d. Explain Black Codes, the Ku Klux Klan, and other forms of resistance to racial equality during Reconstruction. e. Explain the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in relationship to Reconstruction. f. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent compromise of 1877 marked the end of Reconstruction

3 The Reconstruction Era
What lasting consequences arose from the struggles over Reconstruction?

4 Rival Plans for Reconstruction Section 1
How did the Radical Republicans’ plans for Reconstruction differ from Lincoln’s and Johnson’s? Vocabulary: Reconstruction black code Radical Republican impeach Civil Rights Act of 1866 Wade-Davis Bill Freedmen’s Bureau Andrew Johnson Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment

5 Rival Plans for Reconstruction
The Issues of Reconstruction Main Idea: During the era of Reconstruction (1865–1877), the federal government struggled with how to return the eleven southern states to the Union, rebuild the South’s ruined economy, and promote the rights of former slaves. Lincoln Sets a Moderate Course Main Idea: Even while the war was in progress, Union politicians had debated programs for repairing the nation’s political structure and economy. For President Lincoln, one of the first major goals was to reunify the nation. Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan Main Idea: Lincoln’s death thrust his Vice President, Andrew Johnson, into the presidency. Like Lincoln, Johnson wanted to restore the political status of the southern states as quickly as possible. However, Johnson was against federal intervention to advance African American political and civil rights. This caused significant tension with Congress. Congressional Reconstruction Main Idea: As violence against African Americans in the South increased, moderate and Radical Republicans blamed the rising tide of lawlessness on Johnson’s lenient policies. For the first time ever, with the required two-thirds majority, Congress passed major legislation over a President’s veto. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 became law.

6 Think About It… Why did the implementation of truly radical measures during Reconstruction fail to truly help southern Blacks while thoroughly angering and alienating southern whites? So… Was Reconstruction a success or was Reconstruction a failure??

7 Presidential Reconstruction Section 1
Reconstruction was the federal government’s attempt to repair the damage to the South after the Civil War Occurred from 1865 to 1877 Controversial Had mixed results

8 Results of the Civil War
The entire country was impacted by the war The North Lost 364k Federal soldiers including 38k African Americans The South Lost 260k Confederate soldiers 1/5 of all white men in region

9 Southerners’ Hardships
Black Southerners 4 million freed slaves with little or no skills or education Homeless and jobless Plantation owners Lost slave labor that amounted to $3 billion Lost seized plantation land- $100 million Poor white southerners Could not find new jobs Moved North if possible

10 Federal Government’s Dilemma What to do About the South??
Lincoln's Plan Pardon any Southerner who pledged allegiance to the United States But denied pardons to officials who had killed African American war prisoners Permitted states to hold a new constitutional convention AFTER 10% of voters had sworn allegiance to the US After state constitutions were accepted, voting rights would be reestablished

11 Transparency: Rebuilding the Union

12 The Radical Republicans
Most northerners in Congress were Republicans and opposed to slavery They now wanted to punish the South Saw Lincoln’s plan as too forgiving Congress’ Plan was to totally reconstruct southern society and guarantee southern blacks equality Passed own plan- The Wade- Davis Act Lincoln used pocket-veto to kill bill

13 The Death of a President
Did not live to see the peace he helped to create Conspirators and southern sympathizers plotted against the president Died in office on April 14, 1865


15 Lincoln - Kennedy Coincidences
9) The first name of Lincoln's private secretary was John, the last      name of Kennedy's private secretary was Lincoln. 10) John Wilkes Booth was born in 1839 [according to some sources] Lee Harvey Oswald was born in 1939, one hundred years later. 11) Both assassins were Southerners who held extremist views. 12) Both assassins were murdered before they could be brought to trial. 13) Booth shot Lincoln in a theater and fled to a warehouse. Oswald        shot Kennedy from a warehouse and fled to a theater. 14) Lincoln and KENNEDY each has 7 letters. 15) ANDREW JOHNSON and LYNDON JOHNSON each has 13 letters. 16) JOHN Wilkes BOOTH and LEE HARVEY OSWALD each has 15 letters. 17) A Lincoln staffer Miss Kennedy told him not to go to the Theater.  A Kennedy       staffer Miss Lincoln, told him not to go to Dallas. 1) Lincoln was elected in 1860, Kennedy in 1960, 100 years apart 2) Both men were deeply involved in civil rights for African Americans. 3) Both men were assassinated on a Friday, in the presence of     their wives. 4) Each wife had lost a child while living at the White House. 5) Both men were killed by a bullet that entered the head from behind. 6) Lincoln was killed in Ford's Theater. Kennedy met his death while      riding in a Lincoln convertible made by the Ford Motor Company. 7) Both men were succeeded by vice-presidents named Johnson who were      southern Democrats and former senators. 8) Andrew Johnson was born in Lyndon Johnson was born in 1908,      exactly one hundred years later.

16 Strange….But True???

17 President Andrew Johnson
Not well liked by either side Only Southern senator to remain in Congress after Secession Created own plan for Reconstructing the South Political Cartoon, “Johnson Antagonizes Washington”

18 Johnson’s Plan Pardon all Southerner’s who swore allegiance to US
Permitted each southern state to hold a constitutional convention without Lincoln’s 10% requirement Former Confederate states had to void secession, abolish slavery, and ratify 13th Amendment Then elections could be held and statehood resumed

19 Like Adding Fuel to the Fire
Johnson’s Plan vs. Lincoln's Plan Johnson’s was more generous to the South Created anger and resentment in Congress Congress decided to make own plan The Radical Republicans were born

20 Congress’ Plan Put the South under military rule
Order southern states to hold new elections for constitutional delegates Required all states to allow African- Americans the right to vote Temporarily barred former Confederates from voting Required southern states to guarantee equal rights for all citizens Required all states ratify the 14th Amendment

21 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

22 A Showdown Between Two Branches of Government!
A constitutional crisis occurred when the Congress’ plan was pitted against the President’s plan Two powerful Senators led the charge against President Johnson Charles Sumner- MA senator and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens- PA senator and power player

23 Executive versus Legislative
President Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton The Radical Republicans tried to block the firing using the new Tenure of Office Act Provisions of the Act: Took power away from the President The hiring and firing of Cabinet secretaries had to approved by Congress The title of Commander-in-Chief was also removed!

24 Decision Point: Who Controls the Readmission of States?

25 Thank God Almighty I’m Free At Last!
Southern blacks celebrated their freedom as the politicians decided how to proceed with punishing the South Freedom of Movement Freedom to Own Land Freedom to Worship Freedom to Learn

26 Quick Study: Freedmen’s Bureau Schools, 1865-1870

27 The Freedman’s Bureau Created in March 1865 as a relief agency for newly freed slaves or “Freedmen” Was intended to offer assistance in housing, education, and citizenship Was not completely successfully in any of these areas (due to corruption and mismanagement) Did issue twenty million rations of food, established 50 hospitals, set up 4,330 schools and helped establish the first Black colleges.


29 The 14th and 15th Amendments
Congress was concerned about these abuses and decided to add civil rights to the US Constitution 14th Amendment- Granted citizenship and “equal protection” to all African Americans 15th Amendment- Gave the right to vote to all African American males over the age of 21 Both amendments have had far reaching effects in the 19th-20th and 21st centuries

30 Reconstruction in the South Section 2
What were the immediate effects of Reconstruction? Vocabulary: scalawag share-tenancy carpetbagger tenant farming segregation Ku Klux Klan integration Enforcement Acts sharecropping

31 Sec 2: Reconstruction in the South
Republican Governments Bring Change Main Idea: The Republican Party dominated Confederate states’ newly established governments and consisted of black men, men who previously lacked access to politics, and northerners who moved to the south to make their fortunes. The Republicans succeeded at helping to shape a public school system but failed to support women’s suffrage. Freed People Build New Communities Main Idea: For the first time, many African American men and women could legalize and celebrate their marriages, create homes for their families, and make choices about where they would reside. However, their choices were restricted by black codes that limited what work they might do. Life presented new problems and opportunities. Remaking the Southern Economy Main Idea: Many of the South’s problems resulted from the uneven distribution of land. After the war, the millions of landless southern white people were competing with millions of landless black people for work as farm laborers on the land of others. Continued… Sec 2: Reconstruction in the South

32 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

33 The Life of a Freedman The South was desperate for workers
Most former slaves who could leave did Most who stayed in South became sharecroppers or tenant farmers Worked another person’s land Had free or reduced rent in exchange for tending crops Received part of profit- if any was made

34 Economic Effects on South
The labor force changed Cotton harvest changed from 90% slave labor to 40% white tenant farmers Emphasis now on cash crops Cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane rather than food The South became dependent upon imports of food Cycle of debt was established Poverty in all classes and races Rise of merchant class in South New stores sold goods on credit

35 Transparency: The Cycle of Sharecropping

36 Black Codes After Southern states met Johnson’s requirements they one-by-one rolled back civil rights laws Many southern states instituted Black Codes as a way of getting around requirements Set curfews, created vagrancy laws, set year-long contract minimums, limited black women’s right to work, restricted renting to cities…


38 Quick Study: Major Reconstruction Legislation 1865-1870

39 Andrew Johnson Cartoons

40 Johnson as Caesar: “Treason is a crime and must be punished"

41 The 1st Presidential Impeachment
The House of Representatives filed charges of impeachment against Johnson The House voted ‘yes’ The Senate held a trial and Johnson was found ‘not guilty’ by one vote Was not convicted Kept his office Established the precedent that “high crimes and misdemeanors” were needed to remove a president

42 The Republican South Not everyone in the South was a Democrat
Northerners who moved South to take advantage of the situation for profit were called “carpetbaggers” Even more hated were the “Scalawags Southerners who joined the Republican party or who were former Whigs

43 Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Burden of Reconstruction
TRANSPARENCY Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Burden of Reconstruction

44 Chart: Sharecropping Cycle of Poverty

45 Map: Percentage of sharecropped farms by county

46 Terror Groups White Southerners unhappy with their new way of life created “political clubs” to complain about politics These soon evolved into terrorist groups KKK, The Knights of the White Camilla… Used tactics such as intimidation, threats, and violence against freedmen, carpetbaggers, and scalawags Effective at stopping progression in South


48 Stopping the Klan President Grant requested that Congress pass a series of laws outlawing hate groups and their tactics The Enforcement Act of 1870 Used federal troops to stop the violence, but once the troops withdrew the terror started again

49 President Ulysses S. Grant

50 The End of Reconstruction Section 3
How and why did Reconstruction end? Vocabulary: Redeemer Rutherford B. Hayes Compromise of 1877

51 The End of Reconstruction
The Nation Considers Other Matters Main Idea: Aside from the long-standing issue of regional strife, other social, political, and economic issues cried out for attention. Why Did Reconstruction End? Main Idea: Ever since the Radical Republicans failed to convict President Johnson, their power and crusading zeal had faded. By 1871, a generation of white reformers, forged by abolitionist fervor and eager to participate in the national politics of Reconstruction, had passed away. Without such leaders to temper it, northern racial prejudice reemerged. Evaluating Reconstruction’s Effects Main Idea: Reconstruction failed to heal the bitterness between North and South or to provide lasting protection for freed people. However, it did raise African Americans’ expectations of their right to citizenship, and it placed before Americans the meaning and value of the right to vote.

52 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

53 Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas

54 Birth of Industrial South
Growth of southern cities Atlanta, Nashville, Memphis, Dallas, Montgomery, Little Rock Some areas became industrial Birmingham AL- steel production However, the majority of Southerners remained dependent upon agriculture for their livelihood

55 The End of Reconstruction
Most Americans had become tired of Reconstruction by the mid-1870’s- Why? The country had gone into debt Reconstruction programs became known for greed and corruption Southerners had gained back control in most Southern states (it took longer in GA!) Southern states began to block legislation in Congress again Many Northern voters’ did not support the Radical Republican’s idea of full equality for blacks An economic recession turned public opinion away from the movement for equal rights

56 The Solid South is Born When the Southern states all were readmitted they began to vote in a Democratic block White Southern Democrats were elected who blocked new legislation

57 The Election of 1876 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel Tilden Congress was forced to settle the election The vote went to Hayes when he promised to end Reconstruction The Compromise of 1877 Gave the South control of own states


59 “Compromise, Indeed!”

60 Successes of Reconstruction
Union was rebuilt and South was rebuilt Economic growth was established in the South The 14th and 15th Amendments granted rights to freedmen The Freedman’s Bureau helped many newly freed slaves with a fresh start Mandatory education was started in South

61 Failures of Reconstruction
Most blacks remained poor and uneducated Terror groups were formed Racist attitudes continued in both the North and South Southern infrastructure and economies lagged far behind the North Many problems remained unaddressed Women, labor unions, and farmers fearful of the coming of the railroads

62 Think About It…Again! Why did the implementation of truly radical measures during Reconstruction fail to truly help southern Blacks while thoroughly angering and alienating southern whites? So… Was Reconstruction a success or was Reconstruction a failure??

63 Transparency: The Effects of Reconstruction

64 Chart: African Americans Elected to the U.S. Congress

65 Effects of Reconstruction

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