Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction Goal 3 Final PowerPoint. Reconstruction Focus Questions 1. What group made up the majority of Southern Republicans? 2. Name five (5) ways."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstruction Goal 3 Final PowerPoint
Reconstruction Focus Questions 1. What group made up the majority of Southern Republicans? 2. Name five (5) ways the lives of Southern African Americans changed during reconstruction. 3. What is meant by the phrase “40 acres and a mule”? 4. What were the goals of the KKK? 5. What were the failures of Reconstruction? 6. What were the successes of Reconstruction?
Important Vocabulary for Reconstruction 1. Thirteenth Amendment 2. Andrew Johnson 3. Reconstruction 4. Radical Republicans 5. Freedman’s Bureau 6. Black codes 7. Fourteenth Amendment 8. Fifteenth Amendment 9. Scalawags 10. Carpetbaggers 11. Hiram Revels 12. Sharecropping 13. Tenant Farming 14. Ku Klux Klan 15. Redemption 16. Rutherford B. Hayes 17. Compromise of 1877
Lincoln’s Assassination Five days after the Civil War ended, Lincoln was assassinated while watching a play at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC. His assassin was John Wilkes Booth, an actor and Southern sympathizer. Booth escaped and was found days later in a barn. Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated. Vice President Andrew Johnson became President.
Reconstruction Reconstruction was the time period after the Civil War in which the nation was rebuilt, especially the South The South was physically, economically, and politically destroyed. What would all of these freed slaves do?
Radical Republicans During Reconstruction, a group called the Radical Republicans controlled Congress. Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner led this group. They wanted to destroy the power of former slaveholders. They wanted African Americans to have full citizenship, including suffrage (the right to vote).
13 th Amendment Outlawed slavery in America Many former slaves were reunited with their families. Many became sharecroppers or tenant farmers. Sharecroppers: farmers who worked someone else’s land & gave at least ½ of the profit to the landowner at harvest time. People in the North called sharecropping the “continuation of slavery”. Tenant Farmers: Rented the land and kept the profit from the harvest.
Reconstruction Plans Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Congressional Reconstruction)
How to implement Reconstruction? Different groups had different ideas on how to rebuild. Was the Executive Branch or the Legislative Branch in charge of Reconstruction?
Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Lincoln’s Ten Percent Plan The government would pardon all confederates who swore allegiance to the Union, except high ranking officials After 10% of those who voted in 1860 took the oath & wrote a Constitution, they could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress
Johnson’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Johnson’s Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) Each confederate state could be readmitted to the Union if it would meet several conditions Each would have to withdraw its secession, swear allegiance to the Union, annul Confederate war debts, and ratify the 13 th Amendment.
Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Congressional Reconstruction) Reconstruction Plan Describe the Plan Reconstruction Act of 1867 (Congressional Reconstruction) Divided the confederate states into 5 military districts, each headed by a Union general. The voters in the districts (including blacks) would elect delegates to conventions in which new state constitutions would be drafted In order to reenter the Union, state constitutions had to ensure that black men could vote & the state had to ratify the 14 th Amendment
Freedmen’s Bureau During Reconstruction, Congress approved the passage of the Freedmen’s Bureau. It assisted former slaves and poor Southern whites by distributing food and clothes, and establishing hospitals, teacher training programs, schools, and industrial institutions.
Carpetbaggers Carpetbaggers were Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction to take advantage of the turmoil in the South Many came for humanitarian reasons, like to be teachers or work for the Freedmen’s Bureau Some came to start businesses and take advantage of Southern poverty
Scalawags Scalawags were Southerners who became members of the Republican party Southerners were Democrats during the Civil War To become a member of the Republican party meant you were a traitor
Important Reconstruction Legislation Civil Rights Act of gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws (called black codes) 14 th Amendment- made all people born or naturalized in the U.S. citizens. Also gave citizens equal protection under the law 15 th Amendment- no one could be denied the right to vote because of race, color or previous condition of servitude
Conflict between the President and Congress With the passage of the Reconstruction Act of 1867, Congress was in charge of implementing Reconstruction. Andrew Johnson did not agree that Congress should be in charge. Johnson fired the Secretary of War, who was a Radical Republican. This violated the Tenure in Office Act, which limited the power of the President to hire & fire government officials. (Loophole: Lincoln had appointed the Sec. of War).
Johnson Impeached Led by Radical Republican, Thaddeus Steven, Congress voted to impeach Johnson. He was found not guilt by one vote. Johnson did not run for re- election.
Ulysses S. Grant becomes President Former Union General, Ulysses S. Grant, was elected President of the United States. He was a good general, but not a good politician. His administration was plagued with corruption.
Democrats Come to Power With the efforts of the KKK, the Democrats came to power again in the South. This time period is known as “redemption”. Democrats controlled the state governments in the South. They also gained power in Congress.
Compromise of 1877 The Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction. In the election of 1876, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote. Instead of the Democrats making a big issue out of the election results, they made a deal with the Republicans. The Democrats would allow Hayes to stay President, if the Republicans would pull the military out of the South.
Rutherford B. Hayes
What group made up the majority of Southern Republicans? African American men who could vote for the first time
Name five (5) ways the lives of Southern African Americans changed during reconstruction. 1. Searched for loved ones 2. Went to school 3. Able to hold paying jobs 4. Established churches 5. Could travel freely 6. They could run for political office & vote
Hiram Revels, 1 st African American Senator
What is meant by the phrase “40 acres and a mule”? General Sherman promised freed slaves who followed his army 40 acres per family and use of an army mule Some actually received this as payment Today, this has come to imply that African Americans deserve payment (reparations) for the work their ancestors did for this country as slaves
What were the goals of the KKK? To restore white supremacy To prohibit African Americans from exercising their rights as citizens * To terrorize those who wanted progress for African Americans
What were the failures of Reconstruction? Discrimination and racist attitudes still existed Jim Crow laws established (segregation laws; laws that separated the races) Examples: literacy tests, poll taxes, Grandfather clause
What were the successes of Reconstruction? The 13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments gave rights to African Americans African Americans established churches, schools, and civic organizations
Thanks to Ms. Shannon Brayboy for allowing the use of her slides in this PowerPoint.