Presentation on theme: "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute December 1, 2010 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green."— Presentation transcript:
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute December 1, 2010 A.P. U.S. History Mr. Green
Objectives: Enumerate the sequence of major crises, beginning with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, that led up to secession, and explain the significance of each event. Explain how and why the territory of bleeding Kansas became the scene of a dress rehearsal for the Civil War. Trace the growing power of the Republican party in the 1850s and the increasing domination of the Democratic party by its militantly proslavery wing. AP Focus In their attempt to take the White House, the Republicans are defeated when John Frémont loses to Democrat James Buchanan. Nativists, concerned by German and Irish immigration, organize the American, or Know- Nothing, Party, which probably takes votes from the Republicans. In March 1857, the Supreme Court rules that Dred Scott is not a citizen because of his race. The decision goes even further, stating that Congress has no authority to exclude slavery from any part of the nation or its territories. The Missouri Compromise is therefore ruled unconstitutional. The financial crash of 1857 primarily affects the North and West. The South is essentially unaffected because of high cotton prices. Southerners cite this as an example of the superiority of their economic system over the North’s, which exploits the “wage-slaves.”
CHAPTER THEMES A series of major North-South crises in the late 1850s culminated in the election of the antislavery Republican Lincoln to the presidency in 1860. His election caused seven southern states to secede from the union and form the Confederate States of America.
Causes: inpouring California gold-inflated currency Crimean War in Russia-commodities Speculation in land/railroads Tariff of 1857??? Not so fast my friend reduced duties to 20%/placed on books just before the crash Effects: 5,000 business failed in the year “Bread or Dead” Northern grain growers hurt King Cotton no impacted Next Steps: free land or homesteads take away workers More free-soilers Buchanan vetoed it in 1860
1858 Illinois Senate Race Steven Douglas-incumbent Democratic senator Abraham Lincoln-Illinois legislature, 1 term U.S. U.S. House-Whig Party Kansas-Nebraska Act lit a fire in Lincoln Received 110 votes for VP nomination at the Philadelphia convention of 1856
Lincoln and Douglas agreed to 7 debates between August and October 1858 Freeport, Illinois-Famous debate Suppose people of a territory should vote slavery down and since the U.S. Supreme Court decreed that they could not in the Dred Scott decision, who would prevail, the Court or the People? Freeport Doctrine-now matter what the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down. Laws to protect slavery would have to be passed by the legislature.
As public opinion goes against an issue, the law is nearly impossible to execute Douglas won as Senators were chosen by the state legislature Due to inequitable apportionment, Lincoln actually carried a larger population Lincoln became famous from the debates Douglas hurt his chances to become President with support of the Lecompton Constitution and defiance of the Supreme Court
John Brown studied tactics of Toussaint L’Ouverture and Nat Turner Raid on Harpers Ferry Federal Arsenal Killed 7 innocent people, I Free Black Did not obtain the objective of slaves rising in revolt, instead Brown is captured by Lt. Colonel Robert E. Lee and hanged. South angry of northern support for Brown A traitor and apostle of treason Many ignorant of Brown’s bloody past
Democrats met in Charleston, SC Southern Democrats upset with Douglas’ support of the Lecompton Constitution and the Freeport Doctrine Southern Democrats walked out of the convention Tried again…..in Baltimore and nominated Douglas on the platform of popular sovereignty and against obstruction to the Fugitive Slave Law
Southern Democrats in Baltimore organized their own convention Nominated John C. Breckenridge from KY extend slavery into territories annex slave populated Cuba Constitutional Union Party-former Whigs and Know-Nothings Nominated John Bell from TN “The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of Laws”
Republicans nominate Lincoln over Seward Lincoln made fewer enemies than Seward non-extension of slavery into the territories protective tariff no abridgment of rights for immigrants pacific railroad internal improvement in the West free homesteads
Republicans did not control the House or Senate South had a 5-4 majority on the Supreme Court Federal government could not touch slavery where it existed except for……….. a constitutional amendment which could be defeated ¼ of the states Southern states seceded during the lame duck session Buchanan did nothing-Army small and fighting Indians in the West and public opinion
Crittenden amendments Slavery prohibited north of 36 degrees 30 min South of the line, slavery receive federal protection in all territories now and new Popular sovereignty for statehood Slavery would be protected in the southern territories Lincoln rejected this