Presentation on theme: "Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Chapter 28 By: Jessica & Maria Lopez."— Presentation transcript:
Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt Chapter 28 By: Jessica & Maria Lopez
Progressive Roots The “Progressive Movement” initiated before the first decade of the 20 th century. They attempted to expose the abuses of business and the corruption in politics. Their main purpose was to use the government as an agency of human welfare. They originated from Greenback Labor Party of the 1870s &1880s and the Populist Party of the 1890s.
Writers and Politicians began to pinpoint targets for the progressive attack 1894 Henry D. Lloyd “Wealth Against Common Wealth” exposed the corruption of monopoly of the Standard Oil Company. 1899 Thorsten Veblen “The Theory of the Leisure Class” criticizing those who made money out of the trusts.
Socialist promoted a brand of progressivism base on Christian doctrines to get better housing and living conditions for the urban poor. Feminist entered the fight to improve the lives of families that lived and worked in cities with bad condition. Jane Addams Lillian Wald
Raking Muck with Muckrakers 1902 magazines joined in on the bashing of the trusts. Cosmopolitan Collier’s Everybody’s President Roosevelt gave them the name of “Muckrakers” he found them annoying. Some of their writings became best-selling books
These writers exposed the “money trusts,” the railroad barons, and the corrupt amassing of American fortunes John Spargo’s “The Bitter Cry of the Children” exposed child labor. Ray Stannard Baker’s Following the Color Line was about the illiteracy of Blacks. Ida M. Tarbell against Standard Oil Most well-known woman in muckracking movement, and a respected business historian.
Some of the most effective topics of the muckrakers involved immoral “white slaves” traffic in women, the unstable slums and the dreadful amount of industrial accidents. They believed that in order to cure American democracy, was more democracy.
Political Progressivism Progressives were usually middle-class men and women who felt squeezed from the big trusts and the immigrants that worked for cheap labor. Two goals To use state power to curb state tursts and to stem the socialist threat by generally improving the common person’s conditions of life and labor
1 st objective was to regain the power lost to the “interests”. In order to do that they were in favor of… “Initiative” so that voters could directly propose legislation. “Referendums” so that the people could actually vote on issues that affected them. “Recalls” would let the voters eliminate previous elected officials.
2 nd Root-out graft Graft: is one thing attached to another by insertion or implantation so it becomes part of it. Transplant. Australian ballot was secretly beign intorduced in the states to ensure the voter records a sincere choice. Bribery was less achievable
Finally in 1913 17 th Amendment established the direct election of U.S. senators. Feminists received support from progressives early 1900’s for Woman suffrage (right to vote) but did not come yet.
Progressivism in the Cities and States Progressivism gained a lot in the cities For example Galveston, TX used expert-staffed commissions to manage urban affairs or the city- manager system, that was created to take politics out of municipal administration. Urban reformers took on “slumlords,” juvenile delinquency, and wide-open prostitution.
Later on this elevated from cities to state level. 1901 Wisconsin, Governor Robert M. La Follette fought for control from the trusts and returned power to the people, leading him up to a progressive Republican leader. Other states followed Oregon and California, which was led by Governor Hiram W. Johnson. Charles Evans Hughes, governor of New York, obtained fame as an investigator of all the wrongdoings of gas and insurance companies, and coal trusts.
Progressive Women Woman could not vote or hold a position in office, but they were still very active in regards of family-ill issues. Most female progressives related their activities as extensions of their traditional roles of wife and mother. Keeping children out of mills and sweatshops Winning pensions for mothers with dependent children Making sure food products were safe to eat
Women’s Trade Union League and the National Consumers League Two new federal agencies in the Department of Labor The Children’s Bureau (1912) The Women’s Bureau (1920)
The fire in 1911 at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City, 146, mostly young women killed from severe burns, or from jumping off from the eight or ninth story. New York city legislator passed stronger laws regulating the hours and conditions of sweatshops 1917 thirty states established worker’s compensation laws, this provided the workers with insurance incase of an injury caused by industrial accidents. Gradual turn into free enterprise
Founded by Frances E. Willard Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), Anti- Saloon League. Formed to go against alchocol (because it was related with prostitution and thretened family stability). 1 million women to “make the world homelike” Lead WCTU into the largest woman’s organiztion in the world. In 1919, the 18th Amendment forbade the sale and drinking of alcohol.
TR’s Square Deal for Labor President Roosevelt was touched by the progressive movement and embraced a “Square Deal”, a program with the three C’s Control of the corporations Consumer protection Conservation of natural resources 1902 a strike took place in the anthracite coal mines of Pennsylvania, 140,000 workers demanded 20% pay increase and reduction of working hours from ten to nine hours.
Mine owners did not pay any attention to the workers and refused to even negotiate. Schools and factories were being shut down, and hospitals were suffering the winter cold. Desperate, and annoyed, Roosevelt threatened to seize the mines and operate them with federal troops. A compromise decision gave the minors 10% increase and nine hours of work. 1903 Department of Commerce and Labor, which was also a part of the Bureau of Corporations (breaking the monopoly and making way for the “trust-busting" era).
TR Corrals the Corporations The Interstate Commerce Commission created in 1887 did not succeed. So Congress passed the Elkins Act in 1903, this fined railroads that gave rebates and the shippers that accepted them. Hepburn Act, 1906 restricted the free passes of the railroad.
Roosevelt believed that there were “good trusts” and “bad trusts”, so he did not want to go smashing all of the businesses. For example the Northern Securities Company, which was organized by J.P. Morgan and James J. Hill. 1904, the Supreme Court upheld Roosevelt’s antitrust suit and told the Northern Securities to vanish, this made Wall Street really mad but helped Roosevelt’s image.
Roosevelt cracked down on over 40 trusts, and he helped remove the beef, sugar, fertilizer, and harvester trusts, but in reality, he wasn’t as great of a trustbuster as he might seem to be. His intentions were not to take down the “good trusts,” but the trusts that did fall under Roosevelts’s regulations fell symbolically, so that other trusts would reform themselves. Roosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, took down more trusts. 1911 when Taft tried to crack down on U.S. Steel, a company that had personally been allowed by Roosevelt to absorb the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company, the reaction from Roosevelt was explosive.
Caring for the Consumer A lot of the meat companies were preparing meat in very unsanitary ways and the Europeans were complaining about the exported meat that they bought from the U.S. In 1906, the Meat Inspection Act was passed, which decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can. Canned food is something that the Americans desperately needed. Pure Food and, Drug Act initiated to prevent the misuse and mislabeling of foods and anything related to pharmacy.
Earth Control Desert Land act of 1877- under which federal government sold arid land cheaply. The act that was successful was the Forest Reserve Act of 1891which allowed to set aside public forest as national parks and other reserves. 46 million acres of land were preserved due to this. Roosevelt as well as pinchot loved natural resources and helped initiate conservation projects.
Another act that was created was the Newlands act of 1902 that initiated projects for western states. By 1900 a quarter of the nations natural timberlands remained so Roos. Set aside 125 millions acres. Big accomplishment during his presidency. The book of Jack London’s call and the boy scouts of America were created due to disappearance of the national frontier.
The “Roosevelt Panic” of 1907 TR was elected president but he denied it since he had served two terms by then. There was a panic in Wall Street where the financial flurry frightened runs on banks, suicides, and criminal indictments against speculators in 1907. TR was found in the middle but he got out and the panic died. In 1908 the Aldrich- Vreeland act which led to Federal Reserve act of 1913.
The Rough Rider Thunders Out In 1908 campaign William Howard Taft was elected as the successor of TR where he was hoping that Taft would follow “his policies”. Taft defeated William Jennings Bryan. TR went on a lion hunt while Taft was in charge. He helped many Americans have healthy adult lives, and ensured that new trusts would fit in capitalism. TR protected against socialism and opened the eyes of Americans to see that they share the world with other nations. So it couldn’t be isolationist.
Traft: A Round Peg in a Square Hole Everybody loves a fat man. Taft was a mild progressive, and a sensitive to criticism and not liberal as TR. People were inspired since he graduated 2 nd in his class at Yale.
The Dollar Goes Abroad as Diplomat Taft urged Americans to invest in a policy called the “dollar diplomacy” and called out to the Wall Street to sluice their dollars to foreign areas. They wanted to go to the far east where the Panamal canal was so they went to Japan and Russians who controlled the railroads of province. Taft had a secretary of state- Knox who sent a group of Americans, and foreign bankers to try to buy railroads and turn them to china. Japan and Russia denied.
Taft the Trustbuster Taft brought 90 suits against the trust during the four years in office. In 1911 the supreme court ordered the dissolution of the mighty standard oil company. Also Taft decided to press an antitrust suit against the U.S steel corp. He now became TR’s antagonist.
Taft Splits the Republican Party Two issues split the rep. party: the tariff and the conservation of lands. Taft passed a reductive bill led by senator Aldrich, then later the Payne-Aldrich bill was passed and Taft signed it betraying his campaign promises. It was drawn from the west and it outraged many people. Taft called it the best bill ever passed.
Taft tried to control the mineral resources by establishing the Bureau of mines, but all he did was mess up and fire Pinchot the chief of the agriculture depart. People were infuriated. By spring of 1910 the Republican Party was split wide open. The democrats emerged with a landslide in the house.
The Taft-Roosevelt Rupture In 1911 the National Progressive Republican League with La Follete being the leader TR tried coming back to the rep. party to make things better but all he won was being the candidate on the progressive party ticket. He was pushing La Follete Roosevelt tasted the bitter cup of defeat but was on fire to lead a third party crusade.