Presentation on theme: "1920s: A Conservative Decade. Why Conservative? Starts with fear of Communism –Workers in Russia had united, overthrown the capitalist upper class, and."— Presentation transcript:
Why Conservative? Starts with fear of Communism –Workers in Russia had united, overthrown the capitalist upper class, and instituted a communist government. –Values of Communism Gov’t ownership of land and property Single-party gov’t Needs of country always trumped the rights of the individual Communism must be spread to other countries to ensure its survival. –Why might Americans be weary of each of these communist values?
The “First” Red Scare Red Scare –Era when the USA became paranoid of the infiltration of Communism. Reaction against communists or sympathizers within the USA. –What group (within the USA) will likely be the target?
Palmer Raids (1919-1920) –Attorney General Palmer believed there was a “conspiracy” to overthrow the government. Arose after a series of bombings throughout American cities. –Created a task force to arrest and deport suspected communists and anarchists. Thousands of people were arrested and held as terrorists. –Many were deported. Red Scare: Palmer Raids
Red Scare: Sacco and Vanzetti Sacco and Vanzetti (1920) –Two Italian immigrants charged with murder in Massachusetts. Both were admitted anarchists. –Convicted on circumstantial evidence, sentenced to death. Died in 1927 in electric chair. Many historians now agree they were wrongly convicted!
Red Scare: Unions The American public lost sympathy with striking workers. –Unions were equated to communists. –National Guard was frequently called in to break up strikes. Boston Police Strike (1919) Steel and Coal Strikes (1919) As a result… –Union membership goes down. –Labor strikes become more infrequent during the 1920s.
“A Return to Normalcy” – Conservatism is Born! As a reaction to the Red Scare and Progressivism, “Conservatism” is born! Elect Republican Warren G. Harding in 1920. –“A Return to Normalcy” Conservative Policies: –Domestic Policy Laissez Faire Economics Restricted Immigration –Emergency Quota Act limited immigration to 3% of an ethnic group’s US population. –Foreign Policy Isolationism –Refused to join League of Nations –Instead: Disarmament! Kellogg-Briand Pact –Agreement between more than 60 nations “not to have war as an option” when dealing with one another. Economics –Tariffs!
1920s: A Conservative Decade The RED SCARE Union Membership goes down. Gov’t becomes more sympathetic towards business. -Adapts “Laissez Faire” Approach. People elect conservatives to power. Lower Business Taxes, Tariffs, Isolationism Economy Booms!