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1848 Revolutions. Ancien Regime Absolute Monarchies –Form of government where the monarch controls the right to make war, tax, judge, and coin money.

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Presentation on theme: "1848 Revolutions. Ancien Regime Absolute Monarchies –Form of government where the monarch controls the right to make war, tax, judge, and coin money."— Presentation transcript:

1 1848 Revolutions

2 Ancien Regime Absolute Monarchies –Form of government where the monarch controls the right to make war, tax, judge, and coin money. Up to 19 th Century –The Most Widespread Traditional Form of Government in Europe –Notable exceptions Ancient Greece Republican Rome Oliver Cromwell’s Commonwealth American Revolution

3 French Revolution Absolute Rulers –Decadent –Remote –Ignorant of masses The ‘Consent’ to be ruled by an absolute monarch withdrawn The Mob The Terror Revolution Hijacked –Napoleon

4 Napoleon Spread ‘Ideas’ of French Revolution throughout Europe –By force Equality Meritocracy Secular Code Napoleon Modernisation Centralisation Nationalism employed to Defeat Napoleon

5 Congress of Vienna Attempt to reintroduce Ancien Regime –Legitimate Monarchy Bourbons Reinstated –Authority of Church –Aristocratic Privelege Congress imposed without ‘consent’ of any peoples –Imposed by victorious aristocracies Power politics and Realpolitik over National Feelings –Buffer Zones Metternich: “ We have redrawn Europe ’ s Map For Eternity ”

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7 Imposing Ancien Regime Principles Repressive Measures –Britain Six Acts Peterloo –Naples Minister of Vengeance –Austria-Hungary Secret Police Agents Provocateurs Conservativism Ascendant

8 Localised Revolutions Greece, Naples, Spain France –1830 Over Royal Prerogative King tried to reduce electorate to Chamber of Deputies Bourbons replaced by Duc D’Orleans

9 New Challenges to Ancien Regimes Liberalism Democracy –Republican Democrats Socialism Nationalism

10 Liberalism Government needs ‘Consent’ of ‘Responsible’ Classes Features –Sovereignty of Parliament (not of People) –Freedom of Press and Speech –Individual Freedom Attracted –Nouveau Riche –Emerging Middle Classes –Manufacturers, Industrialists, Merchants Traditional Institutional Power to be restrained –Church Protestant Ideals preferred to Catholic ones –Monarchy Headway –Britain and Belgium

11 Liberal Ideas on Universal Suffrage “No people should be electors unless their income and intelligence indicated that they had a vested interest in social order. Ideally the electorate should be the mercantile classes, the professions and especially the owners of land.” Cavour 1847 “If you want to ruin a state, give universal suffrage.” Barrot, Opposition Leader, France

12 Democracy Republican - Democrats Government should express ‘Will of the People’ –Universal Suffrage Republicans –One man, one vote –Remove Monarchy Democrats would appeal to Working Class Support –Wary of repeat of 1792 Terror Appealed to –Petite Bourgoisie, Students, Elementary School teachers Headway –France, Italian States, exiled Poles

13 Socialism Want social and economic reorganisation of country in addition to political reorganisation Socialist dilemma –How to achieve economic reorganisation! –Peaceful Social Reformers Robert Owen –Adam Smith + Moral Conscience –Common ownership of means of production and distribution Marx & Engels –Communist Revolution –Insurrectionary, militant Appealed to: –Educated Artisans

14 Nationalism The belief that a group of people who shared a common language, history, heritage, culture and possibly religion, should be brought together to form a Nation state. Requires ‘consent’ of people on a ‘form’ of government –Therefore could be combined with other ideologies eg liberalism, democracy Napoleon inspired French Nationalism and resistance to French Nationalism Appealed to –Educated ‘literate’ classes, professionals, middle classes Role of culture, arts, tradition in defining national consciousness –Italian Resorgimento movement Combined Liberal Nationalists and Republican Nationalists Diversity of ideology hinders Nationalism

15 Pre-1848 Tensions Long Term –Industrialisation Coal, iron, textiles Economic challenge to rulers Migration –Rural to Urban Centres Urbanisation Communications Challenge to Artisans –Population Doubled in previous century Food Supply Problems Malthus –Ideological Challenges Liberalism, Nationalism, Democracy, Socialism

16 Pre-1848 Tensions Short Term –Agricultural Crisis Poor Cereal Harvest –Prices rise by 60% in a year Potato Blight –Prices rise by 135% in a year Uncertainty of Supply 70% of Wages on food –Financial Crisis Investment bubbles burst –Railways, Iron, coal Less money to spend on manufactured goods Unemployment Working and Middle Classes, joined in misery as are urban and agricultural populations

17 1848 Revolutions Unclear Reasons for Revolutionary Activity –Reaction to Long term and Short term Socio- Economic causes –Competing Ideologies in different countries –Some Countries have no revolutions Britain & Russia –Different Revolutionary leaders, aims and aspirations in different countries Varying Combinations of Liberals, Democrats, Nationalists and Socialists No clear coherent organised Revolutions

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19 Case Study France: A Revolution hijacked not once, not twice, but thrice! 1830 – 1848 a weak, corrupt Orleanist Monarchy –Restricted privileged electorate of 240,000 –Liberal bourgeoisie demand incorporation into electorate Reduction of Property qualification from 200 to 100 Francs Intransigent stand of Louis Philippe –Conservative establishment alienates Liberals –Reform Banquets used to protest against King Paris Banquet banned by authorities Liberals agree – but radical Republicans continue demos –Troops open fire on peaceful protesters –Barricades erected, looting, civil disorder –National Guard defect –King loses control of Paris –Abdicates 24 th February to Republican Provisional Government

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21 The Provisional Government falls to the Conservatives Provisional Government –Odd collection of radical & Moderate Republicans Radical social reform v constitutional parliamentary rule –Conservative & Liberal suspicion of Republicanism (memories of 1792 Terror) Financial Disarray –Flight of capital – stock market crashes 55% –New 45% increase of tax imposed on peasantry Handing power back to the Conservatives –April Elections Universal Suffrage (9,000,000) Peasants suspicious of socialist plans to nationalise land Politically Immature Peasants sought ‘advice’ from ‘betters’ Easter Sunday Republicans won 80 seats (of 900 available) Conservatives & Monarchists won 700 seats

22 The Second Republic elects a leader who will kill the Republic! The Constituent Assembly elects a new moderate executive Unhappy Republicans recommence Revolution –Radicals and Socialists –“Liberty or Death” ‘June Days’ Barricades –Forces of Law & Order do not buckle a second time –3,000 rioters killed, 12,000 arrested December Presidential Elections –Louis Napoleon 74% Cavaignac 19% Napoleon offers stability and familiarity Kills off 1848 Liberal, Socialist and Republican dreams once and for all! New elections called May 1849 –Conservatives 500 seats –Republicans up to 200 seats Result unsettles Louis Napoleon –Repressive measures extensively employed –Freedom of speech restricted –Franchise reduced (poorest 33% removed) 1851 Coup d’etat –Declares Hereditary Empire –Plebiscite to confirm

23 The Habsburg Empire Rocks to the Core Nature of Austro-Hungarian Empire –Very Conservative Monarchy Regency –Archduke Ludwig for Ferdinand Court Intrigue –Metternich versus Kolowrat in Konferenz with Ludwig and Karl –Racially Diffuse –Corrupt and Inefficient Severe economic difficulties (in response to rising Germany) –Racial Character of Multi-National Empire The Liberal Revolution –Influence of French Events Liberals take heart –Demand removal of Arch-Reactionary Metternich & limited reforms of government Meetings and Demonstrations dispersed by Gunfire –Antagonises situation – Barricades erected Liberal Amazement –Metternich resigns March 13 th 1848 –Constitution Granted + Censorship lifted

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26 The National Revolutions Emboldened by events in Vienna –Hungary New Liberal regime established Kossuth Magyar Language qualification –To promote Hungarians –Antagonises Slavs –Bohemia Czechs emboldened by Magyars –Liberal Government set up in Prague –Italy Lombardy and Venice rise up Joined by Piedmont

27 The Radicalisation of the Liberal Revolution Students and Democrats emboldened –Stream of Petitions April 25 th Liberal Constitution proposed of elected assembly to share power with Emperor –Radicals rejection of ‘limited concessions’ May 15 th Elections agreed for new assembly to decide new constitution May 17 th – Royal Family legs it New government abolishes Serfdom

28 Liberal Austrian Weaknesses Slavic and National Rivalries –Revealed by Pan-Slavic Congress Poor communications Failure to broaden appeal of Revolution –Urban Liberals antagonise Rural Population Tax burden falls on peasantry Newly freed serfs are content Army owes allegiance to Royal Family

29 The Counter-Revolution Loyal Army defeats Italians Returning Confidence from other Counter-Revolutions Russians show Autocratic Solidarity Divide and Conquer

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31 The Brief History of ‘Liberal’ Germany Confederation of Germany –Congress of Vienna –Buffer State –39 Sovereign States –Prussia & Austria vied for domination

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33 The King of Prussia Frederick William IV –Mad as a Hatter –Anti-Liberal but ‘Arthurian’ Medieval Romanticist –Agricultural Romanticist –Relied on Junker Support Prussia –Efficient –Good Finances –Strong Military

34 Following the French February French Revolutions Many riots in Minor German States –Liberals, Democrats and Socialists take advantage Austria and Prussia expected to intervene to crush revolutions BUT –Vienna Revolution – Fall of Metternich –Berlin riots Army efficiently suppressing revolutionaries However King Frederick William IV withdraws Troops and hands victory to Prussian Liberals Other Princedoms collapse when Prussia’s nerve fails

35 The Liberals cannot believe their luck German National Assembly in Frankfurt –Organised Constituent Assembly –Universal Suffrage But only elected Privileged ‘Notables’ Little Experience A German Ruler –Choose Austrian Habsburg Archduke John rather than King of Prussia Well Known Liberal Sympathiser But cannot guarantee loyalty of Prussian Army

36 Liberals Fail to broaden Support Impose Law and Order –Keen to impress existing rulers Alienate democrats / socialists Suppression of National minorities –Danes in Schleswig Holstein –Czechs in Bohemia Use Prussians and Austrians to suppress However, support Poles –To antagonise Russians –But antagonises Prussian Junkers more

37 Prussian Resurgence Army moves to crush new Polish Grand Duchy –Parliament cannot stop it Prussian parliament disagrees with Frankfurt parliament Prussian army invades Schleswig Holstein (at Frankfurt’s request) –Horrifies international liberal opinion –Britain and Russia threaten war with Prussia –Prussia agrees to own peace with Denmark Abandons Frankfurt government Frankfurt realises that it has no army!

38 Austria and Prussia back in Business Austria reasserts control in Vienna Frederick William deposes Berlin parliament Frankfurt parliament offers emperorship to Prussian King –Frederick William declines –Realist liberals realise parliament dead –Radicals take to the barricades again –Prussian army crushes all resistance

39 The Bottom Line for Germany Success of Revolution Discredited Conservative ideas Failure of Revolution Discredited Liberal Ideas Too many Chiefs not enough Indians –Little Popular Support –Union of Liberals and Democrats not followed up Democrats alienated Rule of Force the only winner Massive exodus of ‘liberal’ intelligentsia Liberalism died in Germany –Militarism, hierarchy, statism triumphant –Capitalists follow suit

40 The Bottom Line for the 1848 Revolutions It appeared as if the Conservatives reasserted control However –Things had changed forever –Economic/social problems permanent challenges to ruling order –Conservatives would have to make concessions to remain in power –Many of the limited Liberal achievements remained permanent The 1850s/60s would see the most liberal period in European History


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