18Section 2 Dynamic Conservatism Reduce Government Activities Public vs. Private PowerThe Farm ProblemFall of McCarthyElection of 1956
19Dynamic Conservatism Democratic Fears Liberal towards people Conservative about spending public moneyContinue New Deal programsAttempt to move the federal government out of other areas
20Reducing Government Activities BudgetTaxesGovernment ControlCompromise of Oil Deposits
21Public vs. Private Power Dams in IdahoPresident supported private ownershipThe TVAKept it owned by the federal government but from getting any larger
22The Farm Problem Overproduction Farmers vs. Output Benson Agricultural Act“Soil Bank Plan”Results of these efforts
23The Moderate Republican Social SecurityMinimum wageOther ProgramsHEW—Dept of Health, Education and WelfareOveta Culp Hobby
24The Fall of McCarthy Suspension of government employees McCarthy’s accusationsTelevised HearingsCensure—a formal reprimand
25The Election of 1956Eisenhower and Nixon (R) vs. Stevenson and Kefauver (D)Eisenhower won easily due to his popularity and the nation’s prosperityHowever, the Republicans lost to the Democrats in both houses of Congress because the people favored democratic policies.
26Civil Rights Chapter 29 Section 3 This slideshow will present an overview to a unit on Human Rights. Highlighted within this presentation will be the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s.Chapter 29 Section 3
27The Declaration of Independence Enacted: July 4, 1776 “We hold these truths to be self evident:That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…”What does the first of two major documents in the American democratic society say? What does this mean? Do you think that the creators of the Declaration of Independence were speaking of only white Anglo-Saxon individuals in America?
28Second-Class Citizens Under the Jim Crow Laws, many different things were segregated:water fountainsrestaurantsbathroomsmovie theaterseven cemeteries!Being excluded from the following places drove African Americans to want to fight for the rights in which they believed that they deserved. The South was the setting of these Jim Crow Laws because following the abolition of slavery in the South, white citizens refused to accept African Americans as part of society. By placing segregation signs and rules on public places, they believed they were not integrating with the same African Americans who once were their property as slaves.
29Plessy vs. Ferguson Ruling: Separate but equal is constitutional Thurgood Marshall
30So, What & Who Lit the Modern Civil Rights Movement Match? 1954 ~ U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education1955 ~ Rosa ParksSo when did the modern Civil Rights Movement begin? Linda Brown was a fifth grade student who was denied access into a public school in Topeka Kansas. Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer of Brown and four other plaintiffs who brought the case to the Supreme Court. Sighting what is said in the 14th Amendment (which we have already seen earlier in this presentation), the judge ruled to desegregate public schools. This stood as the turning point in the fight for equality among African American citizens.Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to stand up and move to the back of a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama. A white passenger had approached Parks, who was seated in the front of the bus, and asked her to move. In the South, it was a “rule” that African Americans were to only sit in the very back of public buses and other forms of transportation, and that if a white passenger were to get on the bus and there was no seat for them, then the African American passengers were to vacate their seats immediately to accommodate that white passenger. Parks did not argue or move, and therefore was violating this “rule” that the South had created. Following Parks’ arrest, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led a boycott/protest that entailed all African Americans refusing to use buses and other forms of transportation in support of Parks. This boycott lasted a year, and was the cause of many violent acts towards African Americans (MLK’s home was bombed). The Supreme Court was the ending factor of this boycott, ruling that the South’s “rules” were unconstitutional and illegal.
31The South Resists“Southern Manifesto”—document protesting the Brown vs. Board decisionThey would use “massive resistance” against it.
32Confrontation at Little Rock 1957Southern states oppose the Brown vs. Board of Education decisionCentral High SchoolOrval Faubus“Little Rock Nine”Just because the Supreme Court ruled in Brown vs. Board of Education that desegregation of public schools must happen, does not mean that the South accepted or acknowledged such a ruling. Central High School, however, was one public school that decided to integrate and live by the ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education. Allowing 9 black students to attend school in this Little Rock, Arkansas community created problems however. In September of 1957, these 9 students attempted to enter school but National Guardsmen dispatched by the Governor of Arkansas denied them access to the school. There were daily problems and violent acts towards these 9 students in attempts to keep them out of the public school. Finally, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered federal troops to escort these 9 students in to the school, and following days of this type of escort service, finally these 9 students were treated with the respect that the Supreme Court says that they rightfully had.
33“I Have a Dream…” Who: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. What: Non-violent, motivational protest speechWhen: August 28, 1963Where: Washington D.C.Attendance: 250,000 peopleEvent called: March on Washington D.C.As mentioned before, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was an activist and key person in the Rosa Parks inspired boycott of public buses in Montgomery, Alabama. MLK became even more recognized when he spoke at the March on Washington D.C. With his “I have a dream” speech, MLK captured the attention of many politicians in Washington D.C., along with many more supporters. (Read speech at the hyperlink provided)
34After the 1950s…. Freedom Riders of 1961 James Meredith 1962 Civil Rights Act of 1964Malcolm X is assassinated 1965Black Panthers 1966Voting Rights Act
40E. Sputnik First satellite to orbit the earth Launched by Russia on October 4, 1957SputnikSputnik II—sent a dog “Laika” into space
41Vanguard Rocket First US rocket Was a failure 2 months later Explorer I orbited the earth
42National Defense Education Act The government paid people to go to college for Math or ScienceWe needed people to help the NASA Program$ 1 billion dollar program to produce more scientists and mathematiciansMade funds available for laboratoriesGave scholarships to those interested in science
43NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration established in 1958 US Space Program
44More Problems in the Middle East Nassar had ties to Soviet UnionImportance of oilEisenhower DoctrineActions of US and British forces
45Easing Tensions Goodwill Tour Eisenhower and Khrushchev exchange visitsSettled their Berlin issue through negotiations
46Eisenhower Steps DownWarned Americans that they had to be prepared with vast military forces and enormous factoriesRetired to Gettysburg, PANext President : JFK