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Eisenhower: Moderate Republican

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1 Eisenhower: Moderate Republican
Chapter 29 Eisenhower: Moderate Republican

2 Section 1: The Republicans Return
Election of 1952 Eisenhower’s Presidency New Foreign Policy The War in Indochina Meeting at the Summit

3 Biography of Eisenhower

4 Election of 1952--Democrats
Democrats had been in office for the last 20 years Korean War Inflation China Adlai Stevenson

5 Election of 1952--Republicans
Republicans chose Eisenhower Nickname Promised to end the war in Korea Won the Presidency easily

6 President Eisenhower’s Win

7 Eisenhower’s Presidency
Characteristics John Foster Dulles Demobilization Massive Retaliation

8 H- Bomb Explodes

9 Brinkmanship Definition Benefits Dangers

10 War in Indochina (1st) Three Countries Other Names Ho Chi Minh
French vs. Communist Vietnamese US’s actions Geneva Conference

11 The Division of Vietnam
Divided into two in 1954 Northern half would be Communist Southern half would be free under the former emperor Bao Dai.

12 First Indochina War Video Clip

13 Pactomania Definition SEATO METO

14 Meeting at the Summit Stalin dies in 1953 Nikita Khrushchev
Peaceful coexistence

15 Video Clip of Khrushchev

16 Spy Planes US wanted to inspect other countries from the air.
Soviet Union rejected it US sent spy planes anyway U2

17 Everybody’s New Deal Chapter 29 Section 2

18 Section 2 Dynamic Conservatism Reduce Government Activities
Public vs. Private Power The Farm Problem Fall of McCarthy Election of 1956

19 Dynamic Conservatism Democratic Fears Liberal towards people
Conservative about spending public money Continue New Deal programs Attempt to move the federal government out of other areas

20 Reducing Government Activities
Budget Taxes Government Control Compromise of Oil Deposits

21 Public vs. Private Power
Dams in Idaho President supported private ownership The TVA Kept it owned by the federal government but from getting any larger

22 The Farm Problem Overproduction Farmers vs. Output
Benson Agricultural Act “Soil Bank Plan” Results of these efforts

23 The Moderate Republican
Social Security Minimum wage Other Programs HEW—Dept of Health, Education and Welfare Oveta Culp Hobby

24 The Fall of McCarthy Suspension of government employees
McCarthy’s accusations Televised Hearings Censure—a formal reprimand

25 The Election of 1956 Eisenhower and Nixon (R) vs. Stevenson and Kefauver (D) Eisenhower won easily due to his popularity and the nation’s prosperity However, the Republicans lost to the Democrats in both houses of Congress because the people favored democratic policies.

26 Civil Rights Chapter 29 Section 3
This slideshow will present an overview to a unit on Human Rights. Highlighted within this presentation will be the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950’s and 1960’s. Chapter 29 Section 3

27 The Declaration of Independence Enacted: July 4, 1776
“We hold these truths to be self evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…” What does the first of two major documents in the American democratic society say? What does this mean? Do you think that the creators of the Declaration of Independence were speaking of only white Anglo-Saxon individuals in America?

28 Second-Class Citizens
Under the Jim Crow Laws, many different things were segregated: water fountains restaurants bathrooms movie theaters even cemeteries! Being excluded from the following places drove African Americans to want to fight for the rights in which they believed that they deserved. The South was the setting of these Jim Crow Laws because following the abolition of slavery in the South, white citizens refused to accept African Americans as part of society. By placing segregation signs and rules on public places, they believed they were not integrating with the same African Americans who once were their property as slaves.

29 Plessy vs. Ferguson Ruling: Separate but equal is constitutional
Thurgood Marshall

30 So, What & Who Lit the Modern Civil Rights Movement Match?
1954 ~ U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education 1955 ~ Rosa Parks So when did the modern Civil Rights Movement begin? Linda Brown was a fifth grade student who was denied access into a public school in Topeka Kansas. Thurgood Marshall was the lawyer of Brown and four other plaintiffs who brought the case to the Supreme Court. Sighting what is said in the 14th Amendment (which we have already seen earlier in this presentation), the judge ruled to desegregate public schools. This stood as the turning point in the fight for equality among African American citizens. Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to stand up and move to the back of a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama. A white passenger had approached Parks, who was seated in the front of the bus, and asked her to move. In the South, it was a “rule” that African Americans were to only sit in the very back of public buses and other forms of transportation, and that if a white passenger were to get on the bus and there was no seat for them, then the African American passengers were to vacate their seats immediately to accommodate that white passenger. Parks did not argue or move, and therefore was violating this “rule” that the South had created. Following Parks’ arrest, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led a boycott/protest that entailed all African Americans refusing to use buses and other forms of transportation in support of Parks. This boycott lasted a year, and was the cause of many violent acts towards African Americans (MLK’s home was bombed). The Supreme Court was the ending factor of this boycott, ruling that the South’s “rules” were unconstitutional and illegal.

31 The South Resists “Southern Manifesto”—document protesting the Brown vs. Board decision They would use “massive resistance” against it.

32 Confrontation at Little Rock
1957 Southern states oppose the Brown vs. Board of Education decision Central High School Orval Faubus “Little Rock Nine” Just because the Supreme Court ruled in Brown vs. Board of Education that desegregation of public schools must happen, does not mean that the South accepted or acknowledged such a ruling. Central High School, however, was one public school that decided to integrate and live by the ruling in Brown vs. Board of Education. Allowing 9 black students to attend school in this Little Rock, Arkansas community created problems however. In September of 1957, these 9 students attempted to enter school but National Guardsmen dispatched by the Governor of Arkansas denied them access to the school. There were daily problems and violent acts towards these 9 students in attempts to keep them out of the public school. Finally, President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered federal troops to escort these 9 students in to the school, and following days of this type of escort service, finally these 9 students were treated with the respect that the Supreme Court says that they rightfully had.

33 “I Have a Dream…” Who: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
What: Non-violent, motivational protest speech When: August 28, 1963 Where: Washington D.C. Attendance: 250,000 people Event called: March on Washington D.C. As mentioned before, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was an activist and key person in the Rosa Parks inspired boycott of public buses in Montgomery, Alabama. MLK became even more recognized when he spoke at the March on Washington D.C. With his “I have a dream” speech, MLK captured the attention of many politicians in Washington D.C., along with many more supporters. (Read speech at the hyperlink provided)

34 After the 1950s…. Freedom Riders of 1961 James Meredith 1962
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Malcolm X is assassinated 1965 Black Panthers 1966 Voting Rights Act

35 Difficulties Abroad Section 4 Mrs. Hauber

36 Coexistence “Peaceful Coexistence” East Berlin and Hungary

37 Problems in the Middle East
1952 Egypt became independent 1954--Gamal Abdel Nassar Israel

38 War Between Israel and Egypt
War between Israel and Egypt over Suez Canal Soviet Involvement Britain and France’s involvement US does not help UN Resolution

39 Developing Missiles Robert Goddard V-2 Rocket Operation Paperclip

40 E. Sputnik First satellite to orbit the earth
Launched by Russia on October 4, 1957 Sputnik Sputnik II—sent a dog “Laika” into space

41 Vanguard Rocket First US rocket Was a failure
2 months later Explorer I orbited the earth

42 National Defense Education Act
The government paid people to go to college for Math or Science We needed people to help the NASA Program $ 1 billion dollar program to produce more scientists and mathematicians Made funds available for laboratories Gave scholarships to those interested in science

43 NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration established in 1958
US Space Program

44 More Problems in the Middle East
Nassar had ties to Soviet Union Importance of oil Eisenhower Doctrine Actions of US and British forces

45 Easing Tensions Goodwill Tour
Eisenhower and Khrushchev exchange visits Settled their Berlin issue through negotiations

46 Eisenhower Steps Down Warned Americans that they had to be prepared with vast military forces and enormous factories Retired to Gettysburg, PA Next President : JFK


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