Presentation on theme: "“Linkage Institution”"— Presentation transcript:
1“Linkage Institution” Political Parties“Linkage Institution”
2What is a political party? A political party is a group ofvoters, activists, candidates, andoffice holders who identify witha party label and seek to electindividuals to public office.
3The Evolution of American Party Democracy • Hamilton and Jefferson, as heads of theFederalist and Anti-Federalist groupsrespectively, are often considered'fathers' of the modern party system.By 1800, this country had a partysystem with two major parties that hasremained relatively stable ever since.
5Party StructureNational Convention – meets every 4 years, nominates PresidentNational Committee – manages party affairs on daily basisCongressional campaign committee – supports party’s candidatesNational chair – manages daily work
6Function of PartiesConnecting citizens to government (linkage institution)-Political Efficacy – citizen participation level and awareness of government decisionsRun candidates for political officeInform the public – help voters decide who to vote for in electionsOrganizing government – coordinate government policy-making
7Why 2 parties? Winner-take-all system Winner receives a seat while loser receives nothing3rd party usually joins one of other partiesOpposite – Proportional Representation – % of votes is directly applied as the % of representatives
8Democrats and Republicans: The Golden Age From the presidential elections of 1860 to thepresent, the same two major parties havecontested elections in the United States:Democrats and Republicans.– Reconstruction -- Republican dominanceRepublican party formed 1854 by anti-slavery activists– closely competitive– Republican dominance– 1930s and 1940s -- Democratic dominance– 1950s and 1960s -- closely competitive– neither party dominantElection of 2008—Democratic dominanceCurrently—Democrats losing ground in Congressional elections
9“Grass Roots”“Grass Roots” – parties can also reach the voters personally and “get-out-the-vote” on a local level
10One-Partyism A significant trend of recent times is the demise of one-partyism (one party dominance ofelections in a given region).The formerly "Solid South" is no longer onlyDemocratic.* Many individuals split their vote between theparties, and sometimes vote for third parties.
11Results of the past 4 Presidential elections Red=The Republican candidate carried the state in all four most recent presidential elections (1996, 2000, 2004, 2008). Pink=The Republican candidate carried the state in three of the four most recent elections. Purple=The Republican candidate and the Democratic candidate each carried the state in two of the four most recent elections. Light blue=The Democratic candidate carried the state in three of the four most recent elections. Dark blue=The Democratic candidate carried the state in all four most recent elections
12Minor Parties: Third-Partyism Minor parties are not a threat to the two majorparties.Only eight third parties have won any electoralvotes in a presidential contest.The third parties that have had some success are:– 1996 and 1992: Ross Perot’s Reform Party– 1968: George Wallace’s American Independent Party– 1924: Robert LaFollette’s Progressive Party– 1912: Teddy Roosevelt’s Bull Moose Party– 1856: Millard Fillmore's American Party
13Minor Parties Third Parties have played a role in politics Types Individual personality – those dominated by one figure head (Ex. – 1912 Theodore Roosevelt – Bull-Moose, 1968 George Wallace – American Independent Party)Long-lasting goal or ideology – (Ex. – Abolitionists, Prohibitionists, Socialists)
14The Golden Age of Political Parties 1874-1912 Party stability-rareBig city and big party organization-political“machines” ChicagoParty was viewed as government-partyprovided social services directly=patronageand allegianceIntense devotion=high voter turnout 76% orbetter in elections form
15Modern Era 1930s-social services began to be provided by national gov. not partiesDirect primaries meant power of partydiminishedLoose ties between candidate and partyPost WWII-issue oriented politics– Individual candidate became focus– Interest groups rather than party stepped intovoid– More ticket splitting-voters vote for candidateas much as the party
16Party IdentificationDealignment – weak membership, more “independents” or moderates – popular trend in the last 50 yearsStrait ticket voting – strong party membership, support all candidates for one partyTicket splitting – voting for candidates from multiple parties
17Declining Party Loyalty? Dealignment-general decline in partisan idThe number of independents in the U.S. rosefrom 19% in 1958 to 37% twenty years later.Identification with the two major parties today isin the mid 80% range.Pollsters often find that many self declaredindependents often 'lean' quite strongly to eitherthe Democrat or Republican party.“Leaners” do feel party affiliations, but choosenot to self-identify with a party.
18Realignment A shifting of party coalition groupings in the electorate that remains in place forseveral elections– Jefferson formed Dem-Rep party– Whig dissolved, Republican emerged won pres. 1860– Great Depression-many voters realigned toDem
19More on Realignment?“Gridlock” – Congress and Presidency controlled by different partiesRepublican sweep of Congress and Presidency - party loyalty stronger?split the Presidency and Congress againbrought a Democratic sweepMid elections 2010—backlash from economy and BP oil spill + Tea Party MAY see a shift back towards Republican party
20Since the early 1980s, the Republican Party platform has been increasingly influenced by A) environmental activistsB) evangelical ChristiansC) civil libertariansD) labor unionsE) active military officers
21Since 1972, voters in presidential elections have A) become more focused on individual candidatesB) increasingly based their votes on televised debatesC) become more influenced by party platformsD) become more likely to focus on local rather than national conditionsE) become more likely to rely on print media for information
22An election in which there is a significant shift in the bases of electoral support from one political party to another is called aA) deviating electionB) maintaining electionC) realigning electionD) primary electionE) dealigning election